The French in America to 1760. Nouvelle-France. Nouvelle-France. Why did the French and other Europeans come to North America and how did they interact with the First Peoples?. Introduction. 15 th century navigation- pioneer sailing routes to Asia and America
Why did the French and other Europeans come to North America and how did they interact with the First Peoples?
Britain: wealth and indentured labourers
Spain: passage for spices
Portugal: spices, territory, organized slave trade
France-feared they would be left behind for world trade. Settlement necessary to ensure imperial supremcy.
How did the French structure society within their colony
Wanted to force the British out past the mountains and expand territory.
“We must arm and support them against those who are in the English interest and force the latter back beyond the mountains”
Exploration won but was a bad move as the territory became to large to support
Colbert wanted to settle and form the area into towns and villages so they could defend themselves.
France should have listened to Colbert.Geography: 2 schools of thought
2 main goals:
1. Fur trade provided new raw materials
2. Provide useful markets for goods produced in the mother country eg. Cloth, hardware.
What is mercantilism?
-produced wealth and consumed goods for the mother country
- the development of the colony was always in the interest of the mother country and not the colony. Trade with other places was forbidden
The furs they produced enriched the colony
Help secure loyalty with Aboriginals
Adventured further inland.
Authorities did not like them neglecting their farms
They lead a footloose life.
Officials could not enforce laws against them as they could slip into the wilderness
Independent traders working for own profit not colony.Couruers de Bois
The beaver fur was removed from the skin and was masked together with other adhesives.
The “Hatter” (the name used for a hat maker) would add mercury. The chemicals in mercury would get underneath the hatter’s finger nails and into his skin. The chemicals would make him go crazy hence they were known as a MAD HATTER!!
-increase revenue to support the growth of France and to support the constant wars against Britain
- with the help of the Aboriginals each country could expand further westward and defeat the other country
North Atlantic Triangle
New France France
Furs wood, Fish
Sugar, rum, tobacco
New France was a heavily militarized society
Minister of Colonial Affairs for France
1. Build a colonial empire with a navy to defend it.
2. Halt expansion west. He doesn’t think that colony can defend itself.
3. Colonies can fund France’s military, pay off French debt through the mercantile policy.
4. Don’t want the colony to become too powerful, so they make the government officials answer to the King instead of allowing them to have their own ruling body.
The Sovereign Council was the ruling body in New France.
Sovereign Council was an appointed body modeled after French Parliament to serve as the court,
Included an Intendant, a Governor, a Bishop and an attorney general.
The first Intendant to arrive in New France is Jean Talon.
Responsible for justice, finance, and the welfare of the colony.
Usually a professional such as a lawyer.
Ran the day-to-day affairs of the colony.
The first Governor of New France is Frontenac.
Responsible for military and external relations.
Usually a noble and represented the King directly.
In charge of the Roman Catholic Church
Oversaw Healthcare, education, and converting the Aboriginal people.
Who are they?
Men who came to New France to work for a certain amount of years (3-5) under a contract from France.
Most of these men were criminals, poor, unmarried, or unemployable in France.
What they received:
Freedom: many go back to Europe
They were promised food, a small salary (half of which was saved for them until after their term of employment,) passage back to France.
These men could not marry, trade for themselves, or farm.
Draw on board system. NOTE-farm would further be divided among sons
Conserve oak trees for his majesties ships
Mines and minerals
Make a place of residence
Clear the land
Roads for public use
Leave sandbars open for fishing (except his own)
Subdivide land and settle farmers on it.
Trade with Aboriginals
Payments they received were their ownSeigneur Duties and Rights
2 main towns: Quebec and Montreal
Quebec: divided into 2 sections:
A. Lower Town by the water docks and warehouses
B. Upper Town which was the wealthier part of the city
-classy, welcomed ships from Europe, centre of government and religion.
Montreal: Frontier town
- Backdoor-linked colony to interior
- Commerce was fur trade
Who are they?
Women sent to the colony to marry men already living there.
Mostly young women who were orphaned in France. The orphanage would be paid to send healthy girls over 14 who would bear children for the colony.
Families were offered bonus money for having large families of 10 or more children.
Also called “Daughters of the King.”
Mass, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island
-Based on farming, fishing, logging
2. Middle Colonies
-NY, NJ, Pennsylvania, Delaware
-Rich agriculture area, timber and iron
3. Southern Colony
-Maryland, Virginia, The Carolinas and Georgia
Economy-tobacco used blacks as slaves
Year New France* 13 Colonies 1660 3 000 90 000
1710 18 000 331 711
1720 24 474 446 185
1750 53 000 1 170 760
1760 64 041 1 593 625