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Mobile Technologies and their evolution. Eid Al Nakib [email protected] GSM Evolution GSM: Stands for Global System for Mobile Communication. The proposed system had to meet certain criteria: Good subjective speech quality Low terminal and service cost Support for international roaming

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Mobile Technologies and their evolution

Eid Al Nakib

[email protected]

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


GSM Evolution

  • GSM: Stands for Global System for Mobile Communication.
  • The proposed system had to meet certain criteria:
  • Good subjective speech quality
  • Low terminal and service cost
  • Support for international roaming
  • Ability to support handheld terminals
  • Support for range of new services and facilities
  • Spectral efficiency
  • ISDN compatibility
  • voice, fax, SMS and Data transmission

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


GSM Evolution

  • GSM networks would enhance packet data services primarily in three (four) phases
  • General Packet Radio Services(GPRS) refers to the first phase of GSM network architecture enhancements that allow mobiles to connect to IP or X.25 based networks.
  • The GSM/GPRS network architecture will further evolve to support Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), which provides significant improvements over GPRS.

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gsm supplementary services i
GSM Supplementary Services - I
  • Advice of Charge: provides the mobile subscriber with an estimate of the call charges
  • Call Forwarding: This service gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to another number
  • Barring of outgoing calls: This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to present all outgoing calls
  • Barring of incoming calls: This function allows the subscriber to prevent incoming calls
  • Call Hold: This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablish the call

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gsm supplementary services ii
GSM Supplementary Services- II
  • Call Waiting: This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming call. The subscriber can answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call
  • Explicit Call Transfer
  • Multiparty Service: The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation-that is, a simultaneous conversation between three and six subscribers
  • Closed user groups (CUGs): CUGs are generally comparable to a PBX. They are a group of subscribers who are capable of only calling

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective



Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


Evolution Toward Third Generation Wireless Networks

  • 1-G / 2-G: Capable of providing voice and low-rate datanetworks while air interfaces are inadequate for satisfying the high data rates specified.
  • 3-G requirements:
  • High data rates and QoS metrics.
  • GSM is far the most popular standard in the World and particularly

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gsm services phase 1
GSM Services - Phase 1

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gsm services phase 2
GSM Services - Phase 2

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gsm services phase 21
GSM Services - Phase 2+
  • Primarily concerned with the improvement of Bearer (data!) services
    • Full data rate @ 14.4 kb/s
    • High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD)
    • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
  • Some additional supplementary services also specified

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gprs vs edge

General Packet Radio Services

  • Allows GSM mobile subscribers to connect to an IP-based or X.25-based network.
  • new network elements are introduced with GPRS to the GSM architecture

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)

  • EDGE reuses the GSM/GPRS time slot structure
  • 200 kHz carrier and multi-slot operation allow service providers to deploy EDGE transceivers among existing GSM/GPRS transceivers.
  • Adaptive radio link protocol will be employed to take advantage of the better channel quality.

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

gprs ms
  • Two Components
      • Mobile Terminal (MT)
      • SIM card
  • Three Classes of terminal
      • Class A - simultaneous circuit switched (GSM) and packet switched (GPRS) traffic
      • Class B- supports both GSM and GPRS connections but not both at the same time. One call is suspended for the duration of the other
      • Class C - handless both GPRS or GSM but can only be connected to one at the same time.

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

architecture of a gsm network
Architecture of a GSM Network

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

what the names mean
What the names mean
  • MS: Mobile Station
  • BTS: Base Transceiver Station
  • BSC: Base Station Controller
  • HLR: Home Location Register
  • VLR: Visitor Location Register
  • MSC: Mobile Switching Centre
  • BSS: Base Station System
  • EIR: Equipment Identity Register
  • SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
  • IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity
  • GMSC: Gateway Mobile Switching Centre
  • AuC: Authentication Center

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

cdma basics
  • CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) splits calls into fragments and send them over different frequencies simultaneously
  • The use of multiple frequencies gives CDMA effective protection against interference and lost calls
  • CDMA supports true packet switching and does not use time slots, therefore is more bandwidth efficient than TDMA -- also a more direct path to 3G
  • Current CDMA penetration in the world market is about 27%

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


Overview of cdma2000-1x System

CDMA is a new mobile communication mode.

CDMA digital mobile communication network can satisfy the requirements of the second-

generation mobile communication system for subscriber

capacity and narrow-band services. It can also transmit smoothly to the third-

generation mobile communication system

Compared with GSM mobile communication system

CDMA mobile communication system provides obvious technical advantages

for the

operator, CDMA mobile communication system provides high frequency usability

fine coverage and convenient frequency planning. For


CDMA mobile communication system provides fine voice quality

low disconnection rate, small transmission power and strong


CDMA2000 is the 3rd generation successor to IS-95 networks

It provides up to twice the capacity of earlier CDMA systems, with peak data rates

of up to 153.6 kbps in Release 0, planned to increase to 307.2 kbps in Release A.

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


cdma2000-1x System Solution Benefits

End to End Overall System Solution, Perfect Services Provided>> Large Capacity, High Reliability, Flexible Configuration

>> Abundant Protocols Supported, Flexible Networking Modes>> Provide Custom-built Services According to the Requirements of Operators>> Support R-UIM Completely>> Lower costs to upgrade/add capacity

cdma2000-system services capability

>> Common Telephone Services>> Voice Mail Services>> Fax Services>> Alternating Voice and FaxBearer Services>> 1200-14400 bit/s Asynchronous Data>> 1200-144000 bit/s Packets Data

Alternating Voice and 1200-14400 bit/s Data

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

3g systems overview
3G Systems Overview

3G Migration

SOURCE: CDMA Development Group (CDG) CDG Migration Diagram

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

why do carriers want to move to 3g
Why do carriers want to move to 3G?
  • Faster speeds--able to handle more calls
  • Efficiencies in data handling (Integration with the Internet technologies)
  • More capable, multi-media handsets and devices
  • Global interoperability and roaming*
  • Advanced services and more profitable revenue opportunities**

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

3g umts

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


Supplementary Services>> Call Forwarding-Unconditional (CFU)>> Call Forwarding-No Answering (CFNA)>> Call Forwarding-Busy (CFB)>> Call Forwarding-Default (CFD)>> Call Waiting (CW)>> Three-Way Call (3WC)>> Calling Name Identification Presentation (CNIP)>> Calling Name Identification Restriction (CNIR)>> Do Not Disturb (DND) >> Call Transfer (CT)>> Voice Message Retrieval (VMR)>> Message Waiting Notification (MWN)>> Conference Calling (CC)

>> Voice Message Retrieval (VMR)>> Message Waiting Notification (MWN)>> Conference Calling (CC)>> Subscriber PIN Access (SPINA)>> Subscriber PIN Intercept (SPINI)Short Message Services

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


Short Message Services

1)Basic Services>> User Examination>> Message Submitting and Forwarding>> Repeated Forwarding Attempts>> Message Priority Management>> Message Validity Management>> Message Transmission Status Report>> Chinese Message>> Virtual Short Message Center>> Manual Joint>> .Automatic Joint

2) Expanded Services>> Multiple Destination Sending>> Transmitting of User Defined Messages>> Payment Prompt>> Secretary Service

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


>> Mobile Email>> Stock Information on Demand>> Comprehensive Information on DemandVoice Mail Service>> Initiative Leaving Message>> Forward Call Leaving Message>> Short Message Notification>> Listening to Voice Message>> Replying Voice Message>> Forward Voice Message>> Build on Web Function

Intelligent Services>> Pre-Paid Charging Service>> Wireless Virtual Private Network>> Wireless Freephone Services>> Flexible Routing and Charging>> Rejection of Undesired Annoying Calls>> Advice of Charge>> Premium Rate Charging

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective


G-points in Mobile History

  • 1G
  • Analog
  • voice only
  • inflexible
  • not optimized
  • very transparent
  • 2G
  • Digital/Analog
  • voice (data)
  • inflexible
  • optimized
  • transparent
  • 2.5G
  • Digital
  • voice + data
  • flexible
  • optimized
  • transparent
  • 4G
  • digital/analog?
  • even more data
  • very flexible
  • ‘optimisable’
  • transparent
  • 3G
  • Digital
  • data + voice
  • very flexible
  • ‘optimisable’
  • not transparent
  • 3.5G
  • Digital
  • more data (IP)
  • very flexible
  • ‘optimisable’
  • not transparent

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

3rd generation wireless vision

3rd Generation

2nd Generation

Full Web browsing

E-mail w/ Attachments



Multimedia Messaging

Web Browsing




Vertical Solutions

Vehicle Location

Streaming Audio & Video

Online Games

Video Telephony

Music Download


9.6 Kbps

28.8 Kbps

384 Kbps

3rd Generation Wireless Vision
  • Extends current data applications & devices
  • Enables breakthrough data services

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective

new phones have mms wap java gsm or brew cdma 400 million plus in 2005
New Phones Have MMS, WAP, Java (GSM) or BREW (CDMA) 400 million plus in 2005

Mobile Technologies: Consumer Perspective