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Summer 2006 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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"Woodsong". by Gary Paulsen. Summary Slide. Summarize and Paraphrase Reread to Clarify Purpose Sequence of Events Summarize and Paraphrase Practice Figurative Language Analogies Antonyms About the Author Websites. Summarize and Paraphrase.

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Gary Paulsen

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Summary Slide

  • Summarize and Paraphrase

  • Reread to Clarify

  • Purpose

  • Sequence of Events

  • Summarize and Paraphrase Practice

  • Figurative Language

  • Analogies

  • Antonyms

  • About the Author

  • Websites

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Summarize and Paraphrase

  • Good readers stop periodically to summarize and paraphrase what they have just read. This helps them understand what is most important in the selection.

  • To summarize a paragraph, you should look for the main idea of the paragraph and combine it with a brief account of the important details.

  • To paraphrase, you restate a passage in your own words without changing the meaning.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Summarize and Paraphrase

Summarize this paragraph:

What does it take to become a successful gymnast? First of all, it takes a certain amount of natural ability. A good gymnast is first and foremost a good athlete. He or she must have an excellent sense of balance. Besides ability, a gymnast must be physically fit. Fitness is achieved by eating well and by exercising to build up stamina. Obviously, a gymnast also needs instruction in the sport of gymnastics. It’s important to have good basic training and continual coaching. Finally, a successful gymnast is dedicated. Without dedication, he or she would never be able to put in the hours of practice that are required, day after day and year after year.

To become a successful gymnast, a person must have natural ability, be physically fit, have good instruction, and be dedicated.

How would you paraphrase this paragraph?

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Summarize and Paraphrase

  • How would you paraphrase the following sentences?

  • I have every confidence in you.

  • Everyone who has owned dogs has an abundance of anecdotes about the amazing and amusing things dogs do.

  • Yes, the bond between people and dogs is an intimate one, and it has grown for the thousands of years that people and dogs have lived and worked together.

I know you can do it.

Dog owners have lots of stories about the amazing and funny things dogs do.

Dogs and people have grown closer during the thousands of years they have been together.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Reread to Clarify

  • If you are having difficulty summarizing or paraphrasing what you read, rereading to clarify can help you determine which details are important enough to include in your summary and can help you restate a passage in your own words.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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  • Read “Woodsong” on pages 204 – 215.

  • As you read, focus in on the sequence of events. We will work together to put a list of events in order.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Sequence of Events

Place the following events in order:

A. Storm growled at the heavy stove, “the enemy”.

B. Storm dropped the stick one day because the author was pushing the dogs too hard.

C. Storm played jokes on the other sled dogs.

D. The author always knew he was doing the right thing if he saw the stick in Storm’s mouth.

E. Storm played jokes on the author.

F. Storm communicated with the author by carrying a stick.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Summarize and Paraphrase Practice

Read the Meet the Author information on page 215. Pay attention to the three quotes from Gary Paulsen. Match each of the following paraphrases with the quote from page 215.

  • Gary realized that he had no option but to be a writer for the rest of his life, even if he was never successful.

  • He had always yearned to be a successful author but was very surprised when it happened.

  • Gary Paulsen discovered the wonderful world of reading when he happened to go into the library and a kind librarian offered him a card.

“I knew…that whether I was successful or not, whether it worked or not, I would write until I died. I had absolutely no choice.”

“I have become what I hoped for…and sometimes prayed for, and never, not in a million years, thought I would become—a successful author.”

“One day as I was walking past the public library in twenty-below temperatures…I went in to get warm and, to my absolute astonishment, the librarian asked me if I wanted a library card…When she handed me the card, she handed me the world.”

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Figurative Language

Writers use figurative language to make their writing expressive and vivid and also to help readers picture characters and events. Using figurative language makes your writing more interesting. Figurative language words have meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words.

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Figurative Language

  • Simile: a comparison between two things, using the word like or as

  • Metaphor: a comparison between two things in which one thing is said to be another

  • Hyperbole: an exaggeration for special effect

  • Personification: animals or objects are given human traits

Theme 2: Teamwork


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Figurative Language Practice

What type of figurative language does each sentence represent? What is the meaning of the underlined words?

  • The newly waxed car gleamed like a polished apple.

  • That new skyscraper is as high as Mount Everest.

  • The strands of ivy were octopi clinging to the building walls.

  • There was no moon, but the stars were sparkling jewels in the night sky.

  • Trees ringed the meadow, as silent and still as sentinels.

  • Storm did a double take and sat up.

  • Storm was built like a truck.

  • John told her a million times to get off the phone.

Simile - shiny

Hyperbole – very tall

Metaphor – gripped tightly

Metaphor – stars sparkled

Simile – like guards

Personification – couldn’t believe what he saw

Simile – big and strong

Hyperbole – had asked her many times

Theme 2: Teamwork


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  • An analogy is a statement that shows how two words in one pair are related in the same way as two words in another pair.

  • Disengage is to loosen as attach is to fasten.

  • Snort is to breathe as shout is to __________.

  • Attach is to disengage as advance is to _______.

  • Hurry is to saunter as pointedly is to _________.

  • Resembled is to matched as said is to ________.

  • Bulk is to size as brightness is to ____________.



casually; unintentionally

claimed, stated


Theme 2: Teamwork


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  • An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word, such as happiness and sadness, or up and down.

  • Give an antonym for each underlined word.

  • I pointedly ignored Joe’s rude question.

  • Marie was asleep all night.

  • I helped my uncledisengage the horse’s harness.

  • The horse gave a snort as he was freed.

casually; polite

awake; day

no antonym; attach

no antonym; trapped

Theme 2: Teamwork


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About the Author – Gary Paulsen

  • Born May 17, 1939

  • Traveled with carnival at the age of 14

  • Did the 1,180 mile Iditarod two times (1983 and 1985)

  • Loves adventure

  • Working for an aerospace firm in California, when he walked off the job

  • Receives about 200 letters a day

  • His wife, Ruth, is an artist

  • Live part time in New Mexico/rest of time on a boat in the Pacific

  • Official Paulsen Website

  • More on Paulsen

Theme 2: Teamwork


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  • Background Information

  • Summarize/Paraphrase – Reading Skills Rocket

  • Summarize/Paraphrase – Test Tutor

  • Figurative Language – Test Tutor

  • Common/Proper Nouns: Noun Dunk – Grammar Practice Park

Theme 2: Teamwork


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  • Harcourt Trophies – Distant Voyages, Chicago: Harcourt, 2003.

  • MacMillan Connections – Landscapes, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987.

Theme 2: Teamwork