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Exercise and Weight Control. Dr. David L. Gee FCSN 446/PE 446 Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise. Benefits of Exercise for Overweight Individuals. Weight Loss Related Benefits Health Benefits Independent of Weight Loss Psychological Benefits. Why do Americans not exercise?.

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Exercise and weight control

Exercise and Weight Control

Dr. David L. Gee

FCSN 446/PE 446

Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise


Benefits of exercise for overweight individuals
Benefits of Exercise for Overweight Individuals

  • Weight Loss Related Benefits

  • Health Benefits Independent of Weight Loss

  • Psychological Benefits



Successful approaches to adopting and maintaining a physically active lifestyle
Successful Approaches to Adopting and Maintaining a Physically Active Lifestyle

  • NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement, Dec. 1995

  • Perceives a net benefit

    • Chooses an enjoyable activity

    • Feels competent doing activity

    • Feels safe doing activity


Successful approaches to adopting and maintaining a physically active lifestyle1
Successful Approaches to Adopting and Maintaining a Physically Active Lifestyle

  • Easy access to activity

  • Activity fits into daily schedule

  • Financial and social costs acceptable

  • Minimum negative consequences

    • loss of time

    • negative peer pressure

    • problems with self esteem


Successful approaches to adopting and maintaining a physically active lifestyle2
Successful Approaches to Adopting and Maintaining a Physically Active Lifestyle

  • Able to successfully address issues of competing time demands

  • Balance labor saving devices and sedentary activities with activities that involve higher levels of physical exertion


Exercise for the weight loss intensity vs duration
Exercise for the Weight Loss: Intensity vs. Duration Physically Active Lifestyle

  • Recommendations for overweight subjects who are sedentary

  • Begin with lower intensity exercises

  • Work on increasing duration first

  • Focus on regular program (5-7 days/week)

  • Gradually increase intensity once available time is limiting

  • Add weight training if time permits

  • Just do it!


Ok exercise is important but how important is everyday lifestyle activity

OK, exercise is important. Physically Active LifestyleBut, how important is “everyday/lifestyle” activity?


Lifestyle vs structured activity
Lifestyle vs Structured Activity Physically Active Lifestyle

  • JAMA (Jan. 1999)

  • Sedentary men (116) & women (119)

  • 6 months intensive intervention

    • lifestyle physical activity program

    • structured exercise program

  • 18 months maintenance intervention


Lifestyle vs structured activity1
Lifestyle vs Structured Activity Physically Active Lifestyle


Lifestyle vs structured activity2
Lifestyle vs Structured Activity Physically Active Lifestyle


Lifestyle vs structured activity3
Lifestyle vs Structured Activity Physically Active Lifestyle

Conclusions: Lifestyle Programs have similar beneficial changes as Structured Exercise Programs


Training effects of short and long bouts of brisk walking in sedentary women msse 30 152 157 1998
Training Effects of Short and Long Bouts of Brisk Walking in Sedentary Women. MSSE 30:152-157 (1998)

  • 47 women, @70-80% HRmax, 5X/wk, 10 weeks

    • Long walks: 30 min walking

    • Short walks: 3x10 min walking

  • Aerobic capacity increased equally in both walking groups

  • Decreases in BW was greater in short walk (1.7kg) than long walkers (0.9kg)

  • Waist circumference decreased greater in short walk (3cm) than long walkers (1.8cm)

  • Conclusion: accumulations of shorter walks at least as beneficial as single long walk.


Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.JAMA 282:1554-1560

  • 148 obese women, 18 month weight loss program

    • home treadmill + 4-5 25-35min/wk walks

    • home treadmill + 10-14 15-20 min/wk walks

    • no equipment + 10-14 15-20 min/wk walks

  • Weight loss equal in first 6 months

    • (6-7kg)

  • Weight regain similar in last 12 months

    • 1.5-4kg, slightly higher in group w/o treadmill


Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.JAMA 282:1554-1560

  • Dose-response relationship between weight loss/maintenance and weekly exercise time.

  • 150 min/wk:

    • 7kg loss @ 6 mo, 3.5 kg regain at 18 mo.

  • 150-200 min/wk

    • 10.5 kg loss @ 6 mo, 2 kg regain at 18 mo.

  • >200 min/wk

    • 12.5 kg loss @ 6 mo, no regain at 18 mo.

    • 200min/wk = 2-3 walks/day for 10-15min each


  • Active/highly active equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

    • > 10,000 steps/day

    • 20% men

    • 13% women

  • Sedentary lifestyle

    • < 5,000 steps/day

    • 32% men

    • 33% women


  • Factors affecting steps/day equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Age

    • Younger>older

  • Income

    • Low<high

    • Ethnicity NS

  • Marital status

    • Single/divorce>married

  • BMI

    • Obese<overweight<normal


Conclusion
Conclusion: equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • “Increasing steps per day appears to be a good target to use in interventions to increase physical activity.”

  • “Even in Colorado, one of the leanest states, very low levels of physical activity are seen in much of the population.”


Exercise recommendations
Exercise Recommendations equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Old ACSM Recommendations (1990)

    • 3-5 days/week

    • 60-90% of max. HR

    • 20-60 min/session

  • ACSM 2002

    • 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week

  • IOM – DRI Energy - 2002

    • 60 minutes of moderate exercise 7 days a week


Dr gee s recommendations for exercise and weight loss
Dr. Gee’s Recommendations for Exercise and Weight Loss equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Priority 1

    • Emphasize active lifestyle every day

    • brainstorm ideas

    • Pedometers & 10,000 step programs

  • Priority 2

    • Include structured exercise most every day

    • focus first on endurance, second on intensity

  • Priority 3

    • Incorporate weight training 2-3x/week


Considerations for the overweight exerciser
Considerations for the Overweight Exerciser equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Many of those overweight:

    • are currently inactive

    • were never active

    • feel awkward exercising

    • have poor self image


Considerations for the overweight exerciser1
Considerations for the Overweight Exerciser equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Very gradual introduction and progress

  • Appropriate types of exercise

  • group support

  • instructor support

  • low impact

  • heat intolerant

  • measure HR frequently


Considerations for the overweight exerciser2
Considerations for the Overweight Exerciser equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness.

  • Make it a high priority (incentives)

  • Use as a substitute for problem behavior, not as a punishment

  • measure girth in addition to weight


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