Genetic research as a teaching model
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GENETIC RESEARCH AS A TEACHING MODEL. WHY?. MINORITY STUDENTS REMAIN UNDER-REPRESENTED AMONG BIOMEDICAL SCIENTISTS MINORITY COMMUNITIES HAVE SPECIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. WHY ARE MINORITY STUDENTS UNDER-REPRESENTED?. OPPORTUNITES? ROLE-MODELS? DISCRIMINATION? LACK OF INTEREST?

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GENETIC RESEARCH AS A TEACHING MODEL

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Genetic research as a teaching model

GENETIC RESEARCH AS A TEACHING MODEL


Genetic research as a teaching model

WHY?

  • MINORITY STUDENTS REMAIN UNDER-REPRESENTED AMONG BIOMEDICAL SCIENTISTS

  • MINORITY COMMUNITIES HAVE SPECIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS


Why are minority students under represented

WHY ARE MINORITY STUDENTS UNDER-REPRESENTED?

  • OPPORTUNITES?

  • ROLE-MODELS?

  • DISCRIMINATION?

  • LACK OF INTEREST?

  • INADEQUATE PRIOR EDUCATION?

  • CULTURAL RELEVANCE?


Perception of research

PERCEPTION OF RESEARCH

  • A “LONER”

  • BRILLIANT, BUT STUPID

  • FASCINATED BY THINGS THAT MEAN LITTLE TO MOST PEOPLE

  • OCCASIONALLY DANGEROUS TO SOCIETY

  • POCKET PROTECTORS

  • WHITE, MALE?


Reality of research

REALITY OF RESEARCH

  • RESEARCHERS COME FROM INCREASINGLY DIVERSE BACKGROUNDS

  • MANY WORK ON ISSUES OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE TO SOCIETY


What is proposed

WHAT IS PROPOSED?

  • PRE-ECLAMPSIA (PE) IS A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM IN AMERICAN INDIAN COMMUNITIES

  • GENETIC CHANGES KNOWN IN NON-INDIAN POPULATIONS THAT AFFECT PE


Student researchers

STUDENT RESEARCHERS

  • 3 TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS, 2 YEARS

  • 10 HOURS PER WEEK

  • PLAN STUDY

  • LEARN PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL RESEARCH

  • OBTAIN IRB APPROVAL


Student researchers1

STUDENT RESEARCHERS

  • OBTAIN INFORMED CONSENT FROM PARTICIPANTS

  • COLLECT SAMPLES, ANALYZE DNA

  • RESEARCH LITERATURE, WRITE PAPER

  • TEACH OTHER STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCE


Phases i and ii

PHASES I AND II

  • RETROSPECTIVE: INVITE 100 WOMEN WITH PE WHO HAVE DELIVERED IN PAST 10 YRS TO PARTICIPATE

    • INVITE 200 CONTROLS FROM SAME TIME PERIOD

  • PROSPECTIVE: INVITE ALL WOMEN IN PRENATAL CLINIC

  • TEST: FACTOR V (LEIDEN)


Phase iii

PHASE III

SIZE LADDER

  • OTHER GENETIC CHANGES TESTED ON SAMPLES OBTAINED

  • COLLECTION OF SAMPLES BY FINGERSTICK, LIKE DIABETIC TESTING

M/M

+/M

+/+


Building infrastructure

BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURE

  • STAFF:

    • RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES

    • ADDITIONAL TRAINING

  • STUDENTS:

    • “HANDS ON” EXPERIENCE

    • RELEVANT PART TIME WORK

    • ? ENTHUSIASM FOR SCIENCE

  • TMMC AND COMMUNITY:

    • COMMUNITY SERVICE

    • IRB INFRASTRUCTURE?

    • LABORATORY EQUIPMENT

    • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


Annual research conference

ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE

  • PEOPLE INVITED:

    • CHAIR / COUNCIL

    • HEALTH BOARDS

    • PHYSICIANS

    • TEACHERS

    • INTERESTED FOLKS

  • LEARN ABOUT RESEARCH / OPPORTUNITIES

  • SUGGEST IMPORTANT AREAS FOR HEALTH RESEARCH

  • HELP DEVELOP COMMUNITY RESEARCH AGENDA


1 st annual research conference

1st ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE

  • HELD 4/21-22/05

  • Dr. Everett Rhoades, (history of research in Indian Country)

  • Dr. Bull Bennett, (current state of research in tribal colleges)

  • Ms. Beverly Pigman-Becenti, (Navajo IRB experience)

  • Dr. Clifton Poodry, (funding opportunities for research)

  • Dr. Donald Warne, (research and tribal self-determination)


2 nd annual research conference

2nd ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE

  • HELD 4/20-21/06

  • Dr. Joy Dorscher, (Center of American Indian and Minority Health, Univ of Minn)

  • Dr. Anselm Davis, (White House Initiative on Tribal Colleges and Universities)

  • Ms. Irene Linklater, (Association of Manitoba Chiefs)

  • Dr. David Burgess, (Cell Biology, Boston College)

  • Dr. David Baines, (Traditional medicine and biomedical research)


Annual research conference1

ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE

  • Talking Circles discussions on:

    • INMED students from Grand Forks led discussion on research from their viewpoint

    • aspirations and goals for research in this community

    • Concerns about research harms

    • Should the tribe establish an IRB?

    • A brief course in genetics, led by Dr. Linda Burhanstipanov

    • Translation of research findings into clinical practice


Student activities

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

  • BI-WEEKLY MEETINGS WITH DR BEST, AND RESEARCH TECHNICIAN

  • QUARTERLY WORKSHOPS WITH OTHER TRIBAL COLLEGES / IVN

  • PRESENTATIONS TO HEALTH BOARD AND COMMUNITY LEADERS

  • 2-3 DAY TRIPS TO “LOCAL” RESEARCH FACILITIES

  • ATTEND NATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCES


Student activities1

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

  • QUARTERLY IVN PRESENTATIONS:

    • 12/04, 3/05, 6/05, 9/05, 2/06, 5/06

    • Site visit to Cankdeska Cikana, UTTC, Sitting Bull College

  • Presentations to Community:

    • Health Board (6/7/05, 2/28/06)

    • Elders’ meetings

    • Health Fairs

    • HCOP students

    • Crystal students

    • Radio and newspaper features


Student activities2

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

  • Travel to National Conferences:

    • AIHEC, Albuquerque, 4/05

    • SWARM, Tucson, 4/05

    • IHS Research Conf, Seattle, 5/05

    • Epidemiology training, Portland, 6/05

    • AAIP, Washington, DC, 8/05

    • APHA, Philadelphia, PA, 12/05

    • IHS Research Conf, Albuquerque, 4/06

    • Epidemiology training, Portland, 6/06

    • INBRE Conference, Washington DC, 7/06

    • AAIP, St. Paul, MN, 8/06


Student activities3

STUDENT ACTIVITIES

  • Visit Research labs:

    • Winnipeg, DNA diagnostic labs, 1/05

    • UND, Dr. Cindy Anderson, 3/05

    • NDSU PCR training, Dr. Sheri Dorsam, 5/05

    • MBIRI grantee, Timber Lake, SD, 9/05

    • USDA Human Nutrition Lab, Grand Forks, ND, 10/05

    • Drs. Beachy, Super and Keller’s labs at Minot State University, 2/10/06

    • NDak AAAS Meeting, Valley City, 4/06

    • Winnipeg, DNA diagnostic labs, 5/06


Progress to date

PROGRESS TO DATE

  • Recruited and enrolled:

    • 67 Cases

    • 58 Controls

    • 40 Phase II Cohort participants

  • Substantial training for SRAs and staff

  • Good communication and community support

  • 1st Annual Research Conference held, 4/05

  • 2nd Annual Research Conference held, 4/06

  • Faculty development workshop conducted, 12/05

  • 2nd Faculty development workshop planned, 5/06


Challenges

CHALLENGES

  • Developing reliable, stable PCR methods for FVL analysis

    • PCR workshop training at NDSU went well, 5/05

    • ? Over confident, allowed students and RT considerable time to troubleshoot

    • Using FTA cards, difficult to standardize template

    • Now developing consistent results with MBL, which has a track record with FTA template

    • FVL protocol beginning to show good amplification, ? incorrect annealing temp


Challenges1

CHALLENGES


Challenges2

CHALLENGES


Project staff

PROJECT STAFF

  • PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  • CONSULTANTS

  • RESEARCH TECHNICIAN (FULL TIME)

  • ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT (PART TIME)

  • STUDENT RESEARCH ASSISTANTS (10 HR / WK)

    • 5 STUDENTS AT A TIME

    • 11 STUDENTS TOTAL TO DATE


Future directions

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

  • ADDITIONAL GENETIC ANALYSES ON PRE-ECLAMPSIA COHORT

  • INCLUSION OF OTHER COMMUNITIES AND COLLEGES

  • GENETIC EFFECTS OF OFFSPRING ON PRE-ECLAMSIA

  • GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM OTHER AMERICAN INDIAN STUDIES, EG. THE STRONG HEART STUDY

  • STUDY OF OTHER CONDITIONS


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