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GENETIC RESEARCH AS A TEACHING MODEL. WHY?. MINORITY STUDENTS REMAIN UNDER-REPRESENTED AMONG BIOMEDICAL SCIENTISTS MINORITY COMMUNITIES HAVE SPECIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS. WHY ARE MINORITY STUDENTS UNDER-REPRESENTED?. OPPORTUNITES? ROLE-MODELS? DISCRIMINATION? LACK OF INTEREST?

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slide2
WHY?
  • MINORITY STUDENTS REMAIN UNDER-REPRESENTED AMONG BIOMEDICAL SCIENTISTS
  • MINORITY COMMUNITIES HAVE SPECIAL HEALTH PROBLEMS
why are minority students under represented
WHY ARE MINORITY STUDENTS UNDER-REPRESENTED?
  • OPPORTUNITES?
  • ROLE-MODELS?
  • DISCRIMINATION?
  • LACK OF INTEREST?
  • INADEQUATE PRIOR EDUCATION?
  • CULTURAL RELEVANCE?
perception of research
PERCEPTION OF RESEARCH
  • A “LONER”
  • BRILLIANT, BUT STUPID
  • FASCINATED BY THINGS THAT MEAN LITTLE TO MOST PEOPLE
  • OCCASIONALLY DANGEROUS TO SOCIETY
  • POCKET PROTECTORS
  • WHITE, MALE?
reality of research
REALITY OF RESEARCH
  • RESEARCHERS COME FROM INCREASINGLY DIVERSE BACKGROUNDS
  • MANY WORK ON ISSUES OF CRITICAL IMPORTANCE TO SOCIETY
what is proposed
WHAT IS PROPOSED?
  • PRE-ECLAMPSIA (PE) IS A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM IN AMERICAN INDIAN COMMUNITIES
  • GENETIC CHANGES KNOWN IN NON-INDIAN POPULATIONS THAT AFFECT PE
student researchers
STUDENT RESEARCHERS
  • 3 TURTLE MOUNTAIN COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS, 2 YEARS
  • 10 HOURS PER WEEK
  • PLAN STUDY
  • LEARN PRINCIPLES OF ETHICAL RESEARCH
  • OBTAIN IRB APPROVAL
student researchers1
STUDENT RESEARCHERS
  • OBTAIN INFORMED CONSENT FROM PARTICIPANTS
  • COLLECT SAMPLES, ANALYZE DNA
  • RESEARCH LITERATURE, WRITE PAPER
  • TEACH OTHER STUDENTS ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCE
phases i and ii
PHASES I AND II
  • RETROSPECTIVE: INVITE 100 WOMEN WITH PE WHO HAVE DELIVERED IN PAST 10 YRS TO PARTICIPATE
    • INVITE 200 CONTROLS FROM SAME TIME PERIOD
  • PROSPECTIVE: INVITE ALL WOMEN IN PRENATAL CLINIC
  • TEST: FACTOR V (LEIDEN)
phase iii
PHASE III

SIZE LADDER

  • OTHER GENETIC CHANGES TESTED ON SAMPLES OBTAINED
  • COLLECTION OF SAMPLES BY FINGERSTICK, LIKE DIABETIC TESTING

M/M

+/M

+/+

building infrastructure
BUILDING INFRASTRUCTURE
  • STAFF:
    • RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
    • ADDITIONAL TRAINING
  • STUDENTS:
    • “HANDS ON” EXPERIENCE
    • RELEVANT PART TIME WORK
    • ? ENTHUSIASM FOR SCIENCE
  • TMMC AND COMMUNITY:
    • COMMUNITY SERVICE
    • IRB INFRASTRUCTURE?
    • LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
    • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
annual research conference
ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE
  • PEOPLE INVITED:
    • CHAIR / COUNCIL
    • HEALTH BOARDS
    • PHYSICIANS
    • TEACHERS
    • INTERESTED FOLKS
  • LEARN ABOUT RESEARCH / OPPORTUNITIES
  • SUGGEST IMPORTANT AREAS FOR HEALTH RESEARCH
  • HELP DEVELOP COMMUNITY RESEARCH AGENDA
1 st annual research conference
1st ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE
  • HELD 4/21-22/05
  • Dr. Everett Rhoades, (history of research in Indian Country)
  • Dr. Bull Bennett, (current state of research in tribal colleges)
  • Ms. Beverly Pigman-Becenti, (Navajo IRB experience)
  • Dr. Clifton Poodry, (funding opportunities for research)
  • Dr. Donald Warne, (research and tribal self-determination)
2 nd annual research conference
2nd ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE
  • HELD 4/20-21/06
  • Dr. Joy Dorscher, (Center of American Indian and Minority Health, Univ of Minn)
  • Dr. Anselm Davis, (White House Initiative on Tribal Colleges and Universities)
  • Ms. Irene Linklater, (Association of Manitoba Chiefs)
  • Dr. David Burgess, (Cell Biology, Boston College)
  • Dr. David Baines, (Traditional medicine and biomedical research)
annual research conference1
ANNUAL RESEARCH CONFERENCE
  • Talking Circles discussions on:
    • INMED students from Grand Forks led discussion on research from their viewpoint
    • aspirations and goals for research in this community
    • Concerns about research harms
    • Should the tribe establish an IRB?
    • A brief course in genetics, led by Dr. Linda Burhanstipanov
    • Translation of research findings into clinical practice
student activities
STUDENT ACTIVITIES
  • BI-WEEKLY MEETINGS WITH DR BEST, AND RESEARCH TECHNICIAN
  • QUARTERLY WORKSHOPS WITH OTHER TRIBAL COLLEGES / IVN
  • PRESENTATIONS TO HEALTH BOARD AND COMMUNITY LEADERS
  • 2-3 DAY TRIPS TO “LOCAL” RESEARCH FACILITIES
  • ATTEND NATIONAL RESEARCH CONFERENCES
student activities1
STUDENT ACTIVITIES
  • QUARTERLY IVN PRESENTATIONS:
    • 12/04, 3/05, 6/05, 9/05, 2/06, 5/06
    • Site visit to Cankdeska Cikana, UTTC, Sitting Bull College
  • Presentations to Community:
    • Health Board (6/7/05, 2/28/06)
    • Elders’ meetings
    • Health Fairs
    • HCOP students
    • Crystal students
    • Radio and newspaper features
student activities2
STUDENT ACTIVITIES
  • Travel to National Conferences:
    • AIHEC, Albuquerque, 4/05
    • SWARM, Tucson, 4/05
    • IHS Research Conf, Seattle, 5/05
    • Epidemiology training, Portland, 6/05
    • AAIP, Washington, DC, 8/05
    • APHA, Philadelphia, PA, 12/05
    • IHS Research Conf, Albuquerque, 4/06
    • Epidemiology training, Portland, 6/06
    • INBRE Conference, Washington DC, 7/06
    • AAIP, St. Paul, MN, 8/06
student activities3
STUDENT ACTIVITIES
  • Visit Research labs:
    • Winnipeg, DNA diagnostic labs, 1/05
    • UND, Dr. Cindy Anderson, 3/05
    • NDSU PCR training, Dr. Sheri Dorsam, 5/05
    • MBIRI grantee, Timber Lake, SD, 9/05
    • USDA Human Nutrition Lab, Grand Forks, ND, 10/05
    • Drs. Beachy, Super and Keller’s labs at Minot State University, 2/10/06
    • NDak AAAS Meeting, Valley City, 4/06
    • Winnipeg, DNA diagnostic labs, 5/06
progress to date
PROGRESS TO DATE
  • Recruited and enrolled:
    • 67 Cases
    • 58 Controls
    • 40 Phase II Cohort participants
  • Substantial training for SRAs and staff
  • Good communication and community support
  • 1st Annual Research Conference held, 4/05
  • 2nd Annual Research Conference held, 4/06
  • Faculty development workshop conducted, 12/05
  • 2nd Faculty development workshop planned, 5/06
challenges
CHALLENGES
  • Developing reliable, stable PCR methods for FVL analysis
    • PCR workshop training at NDSU went well, 5/05
    • ? Over confident, allowed students and RT considerable time to troubleshoot
    • Using FTA cards, difficult to standardize template
    • Now developing consistent results with MBL, which has a track record with FTA template
    • FVL protocol beginning to show good amplification, ? incorrect annealing temp
project staff
PROJECT STAFF
  • PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR
  • CONSULTANTS
  • RESEARCH TECHNICIAN (FULL TIME)
  • ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT (PART TIME)
  • STUDENT RESEARCH ASSISTANTS (10 HR / WK)
    • 5 STUDENTS AT A TIME
    • 11 STUDENTS TOTAL TO DATE
future directions
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • ADDITIONAL GENETIC ANALYSES ON PRE-ECLAMPSIA COHORT
  • INCLUSION OF OTHER COMMUNITIES AND COLLEGES
  • GENETIC EFFECTS OF OFFSPRING ON PRE-ECLAMSIA
  • GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM OTHER AMERICAN INDIAN STUDIES, EG. THE STRONG HEART STUDY
  • STUDY OF OTHER CONDITIONS
ad