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Earthquakes. Today’s Journey.  0507.7.1 Create a model to illustrate geologic events responsible for changes in the earth’s crust.  0507.7.2 Prepare a chart to compare how volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, and plate movements affect the earth’s surface features.

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Today s journey
Today’s Journey

  • 0507.7.1 Create a model to illustrate geologic events responsible for changes in the earth’s crust.

  • 0507.7.2 Prepare a chart to compare how volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, and plate movementsaffect the earth’s surface features.

  • State Performance Indicators

  • SPI 0507.7.1 Describe internal forces such as volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, and plate movements thatare responsible for the earth’s major geological features such as mountains, valleys, etc.


What is an earthquake
What is an earthquake?

  • Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip (Transform Boundaries)

  • Caused by volcanic or magmatic activity,

  • Caused by other sudden stress changes in the earth.


Three types of faults
Three Types of Faults

Strike-Slip

Thrust

Normal


What causes earthquakes
What causes earthquakes?

  • Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress-built up energy on a fault. Stress causes the rock to deform.

    • The amount of energy released depends on how much rock breaks and how far the blocks of rock move.


Focus – point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins; most of these are less than 45 mi below the surface. Epicenter – point on Earth’s surface above focusWhere do you think would the intensity be strongest?



How seismographs work
How Seismographs Work earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


Typical seismogram
Typical Seismogram earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt


There are two types of seismic waves
There are two types of Seismic Waves earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

  • Body Waves-move through the “body” of the Earth or the inside.

    • They can pass through rock and liquid.

  • Surface waves-move along Earth’s surface.


Primary waves p waves
Primary Waves (P Waves) earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

  • A type of seismic body wave that compresses and expands the ground

  • The first wave to arrive at an earthquake

  • When they reach the surface, they cause rock to move back and forth.

http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm


Secondary waves s waves
Secondary Waves (S Waves) earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

  • A type of seismic body wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side

http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm


Comparing Seismic Waves earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it. Make a quick venn diagram to compare the two types of body waves that occur due to an earthquake.


Surface waves
Surface Waves earthquake because the seismic waves at the focus of an earthquake are the strongest and the epicenter is directly above it.

  • Move along the Earth’s surface

  • Known as L waves

  • Produces motion in the upper crust

    • Motion can be up and down

    • Motion can be around

    • Motion can be back and forth

  • Travel more slowly than S and P waves

  • More destructive because they make the ground swell and roll like ocean waves.

  • Do not travel too far from the epicenter.


How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake
How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake?

  • Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves

  • The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves


Locating earthquakes
Locating Earthquakes epicenter of an earthquake?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


Locating earthquakes1
Locating Earthquakes epicenter of an earthquake?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


Locating earthquakes2
Locating Earthquakes epicenter of an earthquake?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


How are earthquakes measured richter scale
How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale epicenter of an earthquake?

6: Very Strong

7: Severe

2-4:

Moderate- Weak

8: Violent

9: Extreme

5: Strong


How are earthquakes measured mercalli intensity scale
How are Earthquakes Measured? epicenter of an earthquake? Mercalli Intensity Scale

Click Link for Interactive Demo http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf

Click Link for Interactive Demo http://elearning.niu.edu/simulations/images/S_portfolio/Mercalli/Mercalli_Scale.swf


Earthquake waves earth s interior
Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior epicenter of an earthquake?

Bill Nye Earthquake Clip


Seismic waves in the earth
Seismic Waves in the Earth epicenter of an earthquake?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


Tsunamis
Tsunamis epicenter of an earthquake?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM


Formation of a tsunami
Formation of a tsunami epicenter of an earthquake?

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt


Today s journey1
Today’s Journey epicenter of an earthquake?

  • 0507.7.1 Create a model to illustrate geologic events responsible for changes in the earth’s crust.

  • 0507.7.2 Prepare a chart to compare how volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, and plate movementsaffect the earth’s surface features.

  • State Performance Indicators

  • SPI 0507.7.1 Describe internal forces such as volcanoes, earthquakes, faulting, and plate movements thatare responsible for the earth’s major geological features such as mountains, valleys, etc.


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