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Differentiating Instruction One Size Doesn’t Fit All

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### Differentiating InstructionOne Size Doesn’t Fit All

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

Contents:

Tiered instruction

Anchor Activities

Learning Contracts

Cubing

www.loudoncounty.org/ourpages/auto/2007/8/7/1186503506976/October%20Differentiation%20In-Service.ppt

“The fact that students differ may be inconvenient, but it is inescapable. Adapting to that diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards, and fairness to kids.”

- Theodore Sizer, Brown University

The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all in the same way.

-- Howard Gardner

1. Describe one or two students you teach who have unique learning needs.

2. What would those learners need in their classes to make it a great year?

Addressing Diverse Learner NeedsDifferentiation is... learning needs.

...the recognition of and commitment to plan for student differences. A differentiated classroom provides different avenues to acquire content, to process or make sense of information and ideas, and to develop products.

The Goals... learning needs.

... of a differentiated classroom are to maximize student growth and to promote individual student success.

What are we doing now? learning needs.

Our brightest are marching in place! learning needs.

Brain Research learning needs.

Brain Research learning needs.

Brain Research learning needs.

Brain Research learning needs.

This doesn’t work… learning needs.

When to Differentiate learning needs.

Some Basic Principles learning needs.

- We differentiate instruction when we use a variety of instructional techniques that enable us to meet the diverse learning needs of our students.
- It is not the cumbersome technique of individualization.
- It can be thought of as grouped individualization.

Some Basic Principles learning needs.

Some Basic Principles learning needs.

- Differentiation can be done by readiness, interest, or learning styles
- Rome wasn’t built in a day. Begin with areas with which you are the most comfortable.

Differentiation is… learning needs.

- Providing multiple assignments within each unit, tailored for students of different levels of readiness, interest, and/or learning style
- Having high expectations for all students. Aim high and differentiate down as necessary.

Differentiation is… learning needs.

- Permitting students to opt out of material they can demonstrate they know and to progress at their own pace through new material.
- Structuring the class assignments so they require high levels of critical thinking but permit a range of responses.

Differentiation is… learning needs.

- Allowing students to choose, with the teacher’s guidance, ways to learn and to demonstrate what they have learned.
- Providing students with opportunities to explore topics in which they have strong interest and find personal meaning.

Differentiation is… learning needs.

- Implementing flexible grouping strategies that cluster students by achievement in a particular subject area, interest, learning style, personal choice, and/or ability.

Differentiation is… learning needs.

- Flexible. Teachers may move students in and out of groups after assessing students’ instructional needs.

Differentiation isn’t... learning needs.

- Individualization. It isn’t a different lesson plan for each student each day.
- Giving all students the same work most of the time, even in achievement or ability grouped classes.

Differentiation isn’t... learning needs.

- Assigning more math problems or more reading at the same level to high achieving students.
- Focussing on student weaknesses and ignoring student strengths.

Differentiation isn’t… learning needs.

- Requiring students to teach material that they have already mastered to others who have not yet obtained mastery.
- Cooperative learning delivered in rigidly grouped formats, lacks individual accountability, and/or focuses on work that isn’t new to all of the students.

Differentiation isn’t… learning needs.

- Depending solely upon the differences in student response to whole class assignments to provide differentiation.
- Limited to acceleration. Teachers need to able to use a variety of strategies to meet student needs.

Assessment is Crucial to Success learning needs.

- Assessments should be planned prior to instruction – not an add on!
- Assessment is ongoing and diagnostic.
- Readiness levels are identified and lessons are planned accordingly.
- Students use assessment data to evaluate their own learning.

Most Importantly… learning needs.

- Assessment ALWAYS has more to do with helping students grow rather than recording their mistakes and failures!

Assess in many ways for many reasons… learning needs.

- Pre-assessment necessary for effective planning
- On-going assessment to determine effects of instruction and next steps for the student
- Assessment to evaluate student achievement
- Self-Assessment to help students see personal strengths and areas of need

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Tiered Instruction learning needs.

Tiered Instruction learning needs.

Tiered Instruction

Tiered Instruction learning needs.

Tiered Instruction learning needs.

A simple tiered activity learning needs.Grade K: Counting (skill)

- Task 1Find a way to count and show how many people are in our class today.
- How did you get your answer?

- Task 2Find a way to show how many people are in our class.
- How many are absent today?
- How many are here today?
- How do you know?

- Task 3Find a way to show how many boys are in our class today.
- How many boys are absent today?
- How many girls are here today?
- How many girls are absent today?
- Prove you are right.
From Carol Tomlinson

Whole Group Activities learning needs.

- The teacher will read portions from Arctic Memories while showing the pictures.
- Whole class discussion questions:
- What does Inuit mean? (The people)
- How is the land and weather in Grosse Pointe the same as in Arctic Memories? How is it different?
- What did the Inuit people do for food? Shelter? How do they travel?
- What do the parents do for jobs? What do your parents do?

Tiered Activity Groups learning needs.

- Group A: Find the Arctic Region on a map or globe or use the computer. Draw a series of pictures and write captions to:
- Show where the Arctic regions are. Does the place on the map effect the weather?
- How does the weather effect the way of life?
- What might happen if there was a big weather change?
- What themes do you see in the art over and over? How might the art themes change if the weather changed?

Tiered Activity Groups learning needs.

- Group B:
- Draw a Grosse Pointe family activity and an Inuit family activity. In the pictures show one way that an Inuit family is similar to a Grosse Pointe family and one way that it is different.
- Go to the computer and use Write Along to make your own captions for your pictures. Print them and past them onto the pictures.

Conclusion learning needs.

- All students explain their pictures and captions to either the whole class or a mixed group.
- Pictures could be bound to make a class book.

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Find a friend and learning needs.

do Board math with

problems 1 -10 on

Come to the Red math

page 71 of your

workshop on Monday

math book.

and Tuesday

remember the "no

more than four"

rule.

Design an animal on

graph paper using

Solve the great graph

the creature

mystery in your math

blueprint. Get your

folder. Check your

graph approved.

answers with a buddy

Then make a

first, then with the

drawing, painting or

teacher.

model of it.

Work at the

Use the dominoes

measuring and

to solve the

graphing center

problems in your

until you complete

folder. Draw then

the red work.

write your answers.

Grade 3 Math Contract : Below Grade Level

Differentiated Learning ContractsKey skills: Graphing and MeasuringKey Concepts: Relative Sizes- Read: How Big is a Foot?
- Apply: Work with a friend to graph the size of at least 6 things on the list of “ten terrific things.” Label each thing with how you know.
- Extend: Make a group story – or one of your own – that uses measurement and at least one graph. Turn it into a book at the authors’ center.

Measure your height, learning needs.

the height of a friend

Come to the green math

and the height of

workshop on Monday and

your teacher. Graph

Friday

their relative sizes

on a graph board.

Label them and give

them a personality.

Work the even numbered

Complete and graph the

problems on p. 71 of your

domino multiplication

bath book. Use the

challenge. Record your

expert of the day to

answers on the wall chart.

Main Idea

check your work.

Work the

Solve the great graph

measuring and

mystery in your

graphing center

folder. You can work

until you complete

with someone on the

the green work

green team if you

there.

like. Check your

answer with the

teacher.

Grade 3 Math Contract : On Grade Level

Differentiated Learning ContractsKey skills: Graphing and MeasuringKey Concepts: Relative Sizes- Read: Alexander who Used to be Rich or Ten Kids, No Pets
- Think: Complete the math madness book which goes with the story you read.
- Extend*: Now, make a math madness book based on your story about kids and pets or money that comes and goes. Directions are at the authors’ center.
*You can propose an extension of your own.

Find a place in the learning needs.

school of which you

Come to the blue math

could make a pattern

workshop on Tuesday or

graph. Make the

Thursday.

graph and create 3

problems for a

classmate to solve.

Complete the extension

Do a timed test of two-

problems on p. 74 of your

digit multiplication. Use a

bath book. Use the peer

peer monitor.

monitor to check your

Main Idea

work.

Work the

Solve the great graph

measuring and

mystery in your

graphing center

folder. You can work

until you complete

with someone on the

the blue work

blue team if you like.

there.

Check your answer

with the teacher.

Grade 3 Math Contract : Advanced Level

Differentiated Learning ContractsKey skills: Graphing and MeasuringKey Concepts: Relative Sizes- Read: Dinosaurs Before Dark or Airport Control
- Apply: Research a kind of dinosaur or airplane. Figure out how big it is. Graph its size compared to yours on graph paper or on the blacktop outside our room. Label it by name and size.
- Extend: Make a book in which you combine math and dinosaurs or airplanes or something else big. It can be a number fact book, a counting book, or a problem book. Instructions are at the author's center.

Poetry Contract learning needs.

Poetry Contract learning needs.

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Anchor Activities learning needs.

Anchor Activities learning needs.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Adjusted Questions: Varying Journal Prompts learning needs.

- Why did Max go to visit the wild things? Do you think that was a good or bad idea? Why did he decide to come home? Was that a good or bad idea? Why do you say so?
- If you were Max’s Mom or Dad, write about what you would think when he went to his room, when he went where the wild things were, when he came home?

Adjusted Questions: Varying Journal Prompts learning needs.

- Max sometimes talks to himself. Tell us what he says when he goes to his room, goes through his visit to the wild things, decides to come home and gets back to his room. What do he and his parents say the next morning?
- What does it really mean to go where the wild things are? Tell a story about a time when that happened to you or a friend. Tell enough so we can see how the two stories are alike or different.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Compacting learning needs.

- Students take a simple pre-assessment.
- Quiz
- K-W-L
- Do a web with the key concept as the main idea
- Tell the teacher what they know about the topic

- The teacher develops an alternate assignment with the student
- Teacher and student put the alternative in contract form

Instructional Strategies learning needs.

- tiered activities and/or products
- learning contracts
- anchor activities
- adjusted questions
- compacting
- cubing

Cubing learning needs.

Offer a different task at varying degrees of difficulty on each side of the cube.

or...

Provide activities dealing with the same topic at tiered degrees of difficulty by cube OR by learning style (kinesthetic, visual, oral).

Cubing

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

http://www.teach.virginia.edu/files/nagc_cubing__think_dots.pdf

Outcomes Observed by Elementary School Teachers degrees of

- Greater understanding of the concepts
- All students experience challenge
- Ability to apply concepts/skills to new situations and daily life
- Students are excited
- Students have ownership
- Students are more independent learners

Outcomes degrees of

- Students have more evaluative skills
- Students have more metacognitive skills
- Students have greater mastery of content
- Students have problem solving skills
- Students are able to initiate their own projects.

Things to look for: degrees of

- Hands-on projects
- Rubrics
- Learning contracts
- Student Choice
- The way to the end is not always the same for every student.
- Flexible Grouping

Wise Words… degrees of

Final Thoughts degrees of

- Teachers moving toward differentiated instruction in an inclusive, integrated classroom find greater success if they
- (1) have a clear rationale for differentiation
- (2) prepare students and parents for a differentiated classroom
- (3) attend to issues of classroom structure and management as they move toward more student-centered learning
- (4) move toward differentiation at a pace comfortable to both teacher and learners
- (5) plan with team members and other colleagues interested in differentiation (Tomlinson, 1995b).

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