Apg unit iii review
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APG Unit III Review. Fall 2013. Which branch was expected to execute acts of Congress and protect against mass movements to redistribute wealth?. The Executive branch. What are three specific powers given to the President?.

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APG Unit III Review

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Apg unit iii review

APG Unit III Review

Fall 2013


Apg unit iii review

Which branch was expected to execute acts of Congress and protect against mass movements to redistribute wealth?

  • The Executive branch


What are three specific powers given to the president

What are three specific powers given to the President?

  • Commander in Chief, appoints cabinet members, grant pardons, make treaties appoints judges and ambassadors, etc.


Why was washington so careful about the discharge of his duties

Why was Washington so careful about the discharge of his duties?

  • Fearful of setting precedents, which is how most presidential powers have been established


Who must the supreme court count on to make sure that its decisions are adequately enforced

Who must the Supreme Court count on to make sure that its decisions are adequately enforced?

  • Executive Branch


Who served as the first president and vice president of the united states

Who served as the first President and Vice President of the United States?

  • George Washington and John Adams


Who appoints justices ambassadors who approves them

Who appoints Justices & Ambassadors? Who approves them?

President, Senate


Who has the power to negotiate treaties and enforce the laws

Who has the power to negotiate treaties and enforce the laws?

President


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Who is commander in Chief of the armed forces and also in charge of federal departments (Defense, Treasury, State, etc.)

  • the President


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What branch has used many precedents over time to add to its powers? When did many of these take place?

  • executive branch; during times of national crisis (war, Great Depression, etc.)


What are two formal ways the president can try to influence congress informal

What are two formal ways the President can try to influence Congress? Informal?

  • veto, call special session, make State of the Union Address; use bully pulpit, trade political favors/offer campaign support


What are two powers congress has over the president

What are two powers Congress has over the President?

  • approve treaties, cabinet officials, & judges, veto override, control the budget process


What is a plurality election

What is a plurality election?

  • An election involving more than two candidates in which the person who receives the most votes is the winner


Who has the power to enforce laws

Who has the power to enforce laws?

President (Executive Branch)


Which branch of government must approve the president s decision to deploy troops

Which branch of government must approve the President’s decision to deploy troops?

  • None (trick question)

  • Although the 1973 War Powers Act places limits on the President’s ability to do this


What is the chief difference between a president and a prime minister

What is the chief difference between a President and a Prime Minister?

The President is an independent executive power (potential divided government), the PM always comes from the majority party in the legislature (no divided gov’t)


Identify three key types of federal officials that are appointed by the president

Identify three key types of federal officials that are appointed by the President.

SC Justices, ambassadors, cabinet members, cabinet level posts (OMB, SBA, CEA, etc.)


How long is a president s term in office how many terms can one president serve

How long is a President’s term in office? How many terms can one president serve?

4 years, 2 terms (22nd Amendment established this in 1951)


What are three of the constitutional requirements for being president

What are three of the Constitutional requirements for being President?

35 years of age, natural born citizen of the U.S., resident for 14 years


What two types of government offices are most often held by people who later become president

What two types of government offices are most often held by people who later become President?

senator & governor


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What typically happens to Presidential candidates who are either very liberal or very conservative? Give an example.

they are defeated, Goldwater or McGovern


What religious background have all but one of our presidents come from who was the exception

What religious background have all but one of our Presidents come from? Who was the exception?

Protestant (non-Catholic Christian), JFK


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When you have more popular votes than your competition, but not a majority, you have a _____ of the votes. Name two presidents who won this way.

  • Plurality; Truman in ’48, Nixon in ‘68, Clinton in ‘92


Identify 5 constitutionally designated roles of the president

Identify 5 constitutionally designated roles of the President.

  • Commander in Chief, Head of State, Present State of the Union, Negotiate treaties, Chief Executive (oversee Cabinet & Bur)


What are the primary roles of the white house staff

What are the primary roles of the White House staff?

  • Advise President on policy, handle relations with Congress and bureaucracy (cabinet), public & press relations (speech writing, etc.)


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What government entity is charged with determining voter eligibility requirements? Why is this significant?

  • individual state governments get to decide the requirements for their respective states; voting conditions and practices really vary from state to state


Name three activities pacs engage in to gain access to legislature

Name three activities PACs engage in to gain access to legislature.

  • make campaign contributions, run issue ads, lobby, research


Which cabinet member is effectively the ceo of the department of justice

Which cabinet member is effectively the CEO of the Department of Justice?

  • Attorney General


How is the president chosen if no candidate wins a majority of the electoral vote

How is the president chosen if no candidate wins a majority of the electoral vote?

  • the House chooses based on a majority vote of its state delegations (each state gets one vote)


What is political efficacy what demographics define voters who have it

What is political efficacy?What demographics define voters who have it?

  • A citizen’s belief that they understand politics, and that their political participation matters; efficacy increases with age and education


What are inherent powers of the president give an example

What are “inherent powers” of the president? Give an example.

  • Powers exercised based on the authority granted be Article II, not specifically listed; Louisiana Purchase, internment of Nisei, half of the New Deal… 


Name three traditional reasons for low voter turnout

Name three traditional reasons for low voter turnout.

  • registration requirements, weak party affiliation, weekday elections, frequent local and state elections


What are 4 5 factors that play a role in how likely someone is to vote

What are 4-5 factors that play a role in how likely someone is to vote?

  • Their age, gender, education level, race, marital status, and whether or not they belong to a union


What is the mandate theory of elections do political scientists support this theory

What is the “mandate theory of elections”? Do political scientists support this theory?

  • It’s the idea that voters “send a message” when they vote – so that those elected (especially by large margins) have their mandate to make change; pol scientists do not support mandate theory


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Since 1972, voters in presidential elections have been less tied to party loyalties and more interested in what?

  • the characteristics and positions of individual candidates


What are the three biggest influences on how someone decides to vote

What are the three biggest influences on how someone decides to vote?

  • Party identification, their evaluations of the candidates, their views on specific policies


What are motor voter laws what is their intent

What are “motor voter” laws? What is their intent?

  • Laws that allow you to register to vote at the same time you apply for a drivers license; designed to increase voter registration


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What religious group has enjoyed increasingly greater influence in the Republican Party since the early 1980s? How did they get there?

  • Evangelical Christians; Reagan’s bundling of conservative views on social issues


What types of party members attend their party s presidential nominating convention

What types of party members attend their party’s presidential nominating convention?

  • “strong” party voters, very ideological in their approach and dedicated to the party


What is a pocket veto what effect does it have

What is a “pocket veto”? What effect does it have?

  • President takes no action on a bill for 10 days while Congress is not in session; it effectively kills the bill


How did the framers handle their fears regarding the abuse of executive power

How did the framers handle their fears regarding the abuse of executive power?

Put many legislative & judicial checks on the executive in place


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How did historians feel about the use of Presidential power in the two decades following WWII? How and why did that change in the 1960s & 1970s?

They favored a powerful Presidency, but LBJ, the Vietnam War, Nixon, and Watergate made the public more fearful of Presidential power


Who are the first two people in line to succeed the president

Who are the first two people in line to succeed the President?

the VP and then the Speaker of the House


Identify two ways the role of the vp has expanded since eisenhower

Identify two ways the role of the VP has expanded since Eisenhower.

represent U.S. to foreign countries, serve on the National Security Council, play a larger policy shaping role


Since lady bird johnson how have most first ladies chosen to define their role

Since Lady Bird Johnson, how have most First Ladies chosen to define their role?

By focusing on one issue (beautification, literacy, healthier diet & exercise, etc.)


Who officially elects the president how do you earn votes in this system

Who officially elects the President? How do you earn votes in this system?

the electoral college, if you win the popular vote in a state you win all of the electoral votes


What is the group of the president s advisors called

What is the group of the President’s advisors called?

Cabinet (14 advisors plus the Attorney General


Identify four cabinet departments

Identify four Cabinet Departments.

Justice, State, HUD, Health and Human Services, Defense, Treasury, Interior, Labor, Commerce, Transportation, Education, VA, Homeland Security


Who approves cabinet appointees do they generally accept or reject them

Who approves cabinet appointees, do they generally accept or reject them?

the Senate, accept


What are the two key factors that limit the role of the cabinet

What are the two key factors that limit the role of the cabinet?

conflicting loyalties with the President and maintaining secrecy with a large group (14 of them)


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What committee is comprised of the President’s key foreign and military policy advisors? What is their primary role?

The National Security Council (NSC); advise President on all national security issues and help make critical decisions


What is a power many governors have that the president would love to have why

What is a power many governors have that the President would love to have? Why?

  • Line Item veto; gives executive power to veto individual parts of laws or budget items


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What law, passed under the Johnson administration, set out to guarantee the provisions of the 15th Amendment?

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965, which solidified the right to vote regardless of race


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What Office has responsibility for developing and administering the federal budget? How is it most impactful?

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB); develops cost analyses for various proposals that help Pres create proposed budget


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Who is the highest ranking White House staff member? Identify two things Presidents count on receiving from their top level staffers.

Chief of Staff; Information, analysis, policy options, and … loyalty! 


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Why is party support so important to a sitting President? How much consistent support can a President actually count on within his own party?

Needs full backing of party to pursue legislative agenda; two-thirds at any given time


What causes this gap in party loyalty to the president

What causes this gap in party loyalty to the President?

The views of the various constituencies represented by members of Congress (think of current range in Republican Party from moderate to Tea Party)


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What typically happens to the number of seats the President’s party holds in Congress as the result of a midterm election?

The Party of the President typically loses seats in Congress during the midterms


What is the primary reason the electoral college has not been reformed

What is the primary reason the Electoral College has not been reformed?

Would require constitutional amendment, needing support of ¾ of state legislatures – many states don’t want to give up their power


What are two proposals for reforming the electoral college

What are two proposals for reforming the Electoral College?

Straight popular vote, by congressional district (+2), percentage allocation based on popular vote in each state


Identify two types of legislative skills important to the success of the president

Identify two types of legislative skills important to the success of the President.

Bargaining, exploiting the honeymoon period, building Congressional coalitions & structuring votes


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Describe the correlation between Presidential approval ratings and the President’s ability to influence Congress.

Strong approval ratings (and electoral mandates) make it much easier for the President to influence Congress


Identify two ways the president directs national security policy

Identify two ways the President directs national security policy.

Treaties and executive agreements, Commander in Chief, War Powers (use of troops without Congressional approval), International Crisis management


Why is the presidency is referred to as the bully pulpit

Why is the presidency is referred to as the “Bully Pulpit?”

Presidents can use the spotlight of the office to try and influence or sway public opinion


What is the fundamental reason there is ongoing tension between the president and the press

What is the fundamental reason there is ongoing tension between the President and the Press?

President wants to control flow of information to his advantage, Press wants all info immediately (plus greater emphasis on investigative journalism)


Is press coverage of the president usually negative or positive why

Is press coverage of the President usually negative or positive? Why?

Negative; easier for the press to generate negative stories + tension over information


Who can bring charges of impeachment for what reasons

Who can bring charges of impeachment? For what reasons?

House of Reps, “Treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors”


Who acts as the jury in an impeachment trial what is the required vote for a conviction

Who acts as the jury in an impeachment trial? What is the required vote for a “conviction”?

The Senate, two-thirds


Which two presidents have been impeached were either of them found guilty

Which two Presidents have been impeached? Were either of them found guilty?

Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, no


What are the two chief provisions of the 25 th amendment

What are the two chief provisions of the 25th Amendment?

Allows the VP to step in temporarily for the President if the President is disabled, and establishes a procedure for replacing the VP


What was the spoils system

What was the spoils system?

the idea that the President could appoint all of his supporters to government posts after he was elected


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Roughly how many government posts are appointed by the President? Out of how many total federal employees?

3,000; over 4 million


What did the pendleton act do

What did the Pendleton Act do?

it started the Civil Service system (employment & promotion based on exams and merit) & therefore put an end to the spoils system


What did the hatch act 1939 do

What did the Hatch Act (1939) do?

Prohibited almost all federal employees (workers in the bureaucracy) from participating in open political activity


Give two examples of government corporations

Give two examples of government corporations.

FDIC, TVA, and the Postal Service


Give two examples of government agencies

Give two examples of government agencies.

CIA, NASA, EPA


What president oversaw the largest expansion in the federal bureaucracy why

What President oversaw the largest expansion in the federal bureaucracy? Why?

  • FDR, New Deal (Great Depression), & response to WWII


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What name is given to the extremely tight relationship between Gov’t agencies, their client/interest groups, and Congress? Why?

  • The Iron Triangle; because it is difficult for those outside the triangle to influence policy


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New gov’t agencies are often started in response to changing needs, how quickly are these agencies eliminated when no longer needed?

  • Not very quickly, often continue to exist for own sake


Describe the role the bureaucracy plays in the legislative process

Describe the role the bureaucracy plays in the legislative process.

  • Very active, new laws often originate in the bureaucracy, bureaucrats often consult with Congress


Identify two major factors that have led to the growth of the federal bureaucracy

Identify two major factors that have led to the growth of the federal bureaucracy.

  • International crises, economic problems, demands of citizens, national growth and changing technology


What is deregulation what is the most recent example of deregulation gone bad

What is deregulation? What is the most recent example of deregulation gone bad?

lessening the amount of power a regulatory commission has over an industry; Enron and the energy industry, subprime mortgage crisis


Identify three roles of political parties

Identify three roles of political parties.

Pick candidates, run campaigns, provide cues to voters, articulate policies, coordinate policy making


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Over the history of American politics, how far do successful parties usually stray from the political center?

Not far at all – most of our political combat happens in the political middle (moderates & undecided voters)


Is the control and leadership of american political parties highly centralized

Is the control and leadership of American political parties highly centralized?

No; more fragmented and decentralized – history of party machines running local politics


What is the difference between a closed and an open primary

What is the difference between a closed and an open primary?

Closed primaries require voters to register ahead of time for the party’s primary they wish to vote in, open primaries allow voters to make that choice on election day


What is a blanket primary

What is a blanket primary?

A primary where voters get to pick from all of the prospective candidates for a position (usually top 2 vote getters regardless of party go on to general election)


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When an election reshapes a party coalition in a new way, it is known as a ______. An election that shifts from the current trend (before returning) is a ______.

Critical Election

Deviating Election


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Which party represented the true entrance of the common man into American politics? Who was its leader?

The Democrats, Andrew Jackson


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What issue brought about the rise of the Republican Party? What year did they first capture the White House?

Slavery, 1860 (Abraham Lincoln)


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Which party controlled most of American politics for the ~60 years following the Civil War? What brought that control to an end?

Republicans, FDRs New Deal Coalition of Democrats in 1932


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Provide two examples of instances where 3rd parties had a major influence on a Presidential Election.

Bull Moose in 1912 (TR), American Independent in 1968 (Wallace), Reform in 1992 (Perot), Green in 2000 (Nader)


What are two reasons third parties are significant

What are two reasons third parties are significant?

They allow for non-revolutionary expression of discontent (a vent), they impact elections by drawing votes away from major party candidates, they allow for discussion outside the mainstream discourse


How are the two major political parties organized

How are the two major political parties organized?

  • They have separate, independent organizations at the national, state, and local levels


What proportion of registered voters usually votes in national elections

What proportion of registered voters usually votes in national elections?

  • Less than half


What role do pacs play in campaigns

What role do PACs play in campaigns?

  • They work outside the official campaign structure to try and influence the result by running ads, staging events, etc.


What two sc decisions greatly increased role of pacs

What two SC decisions greatly increased role of PACs?

Buckley v Valeo essentially gave PACs free speech rights, Citizens United removed limits on donations to PACS and led to creation of “super PACs”


What are three of the main provisions of the federal election campaign act

What are three of the main provisions of the Federal Election Campaign Act?

Established the FEC to regulate campaign finance, established hard limits on the amount of $$ donated to candidates, established Presidential Election Campaign Fund


What does education level help us predict about voting behavior in the u s

What does education level help us predict about voting behavior in the U.S.?

  • College graduates are more likely to vote than those without a college degree


What type of programs represent the largest portion of mandatory government spending

What type of programs represent the largest portion of mandatory government spending?

  • Entitlement programs (e.g. Social Security, Medicare, etc.)


Who did the 26 th amendment add to the voting rolls what happened as a result

Who did the 26th Amendment add to the voting rolls? What happened as a result?

  • 18-21 year olds, they actually voted in lower percentages than any other age group


What is the single most important factor in the political socialization of children

What is the single most important factor in the political socialization of children?

  • Their parents and family


Is senate confirmation required for members of the white house staff

Is Senate confirmation required for members of the White House staff?

  • No, the President is able to choose his own staff without interference from Congress


Why do presidents make extensive use of executive orders eos

Why do Presidents make extensive use of executive orders (EOs)?

  • EOs allow Presidents to direct actions of the federal gov’t without approval of Congress


What amendment guaranteed the vote for women when was it passed

What amendment guaranteed the vote for women? When was it passed?

  • 19th, 1920 (after WWI)


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When the press focuses more on poll results than on the actual issues in an election this is known as ______. Why can this be problematic?

  • Horserace Journalism – problematic because it favors leader and keeps public from becoming educated on issues


What are some of the reasons politicians use leaks

What are some of the reasons politicians use leaks?

  • Float trial balloons, draw public attention to a problem, discredit opponent, try to force action on an issue


What is the basic role that the media has in terms of the national policy agenda

What is the basic role that the media has in terms of the national policy agenda?

  • Media has tremendous power to draw attention to certain issues and ignore others, people most often assume that what’s most important is what’s in the news, editorial approach can shift public opinion


What are two of the primary provisions of the federal elections campaign act

What are two of the primary provisions of the Federal Elections Campaign Act?

  • Set firm limits on donations to candidates, made donations public, established Federal Election Commission to regulate elections, set up Presidential Election Campaign fund to provide public $$$


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