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西方经济学 精品课程. 开放教育本科. 第 10 章. 简单国民收入决定模型. 学习要求 主要名词: 平均消费倾向 边际消费倾向 投资乘数 主要问题: 短期消费曲线与长期消费曲线的异同。 弗里德曼的相对收入理论及其评述。 莫迪利安尼的生命周期理论及其评述。 影响三部门经济条件下的国民收入的因素。 投资乘数形成的原因、作用及其计算公式。 计算均衡收入、消费、投资和居民可支配收入。. 第一节 消费函数和储蓄函数. 消费函数( consumption function ) 是消费与收入之间的依存关系。

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开放教育本科

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10



consumption function

C=fY


C

C=bY

Y

0



average propensity to consumeAPC


marginal propensity to consumeMPC


bY


C

E

YC0

Y

0


C

E

YC0

Y

0


1APCMPC

2MPCC= C0+bY

3APCMPC

1 MPC 0

4

CYAPC1

CY1APC0

C=YAPC=1

APCMPC


S=fY


S

F

0

E

D

Y



average propensity to saveAPS


marginal propensity to saveMPS









ADCI

=+

AD=C+I


AS

=+

AS=C+S


ADAS

AD=C+IAS=C+S

C+IC+S

IS



AD = C + I


C

E

Y

0


CI

E

Y

0



AD

E

Y

0


AD

Y

E

Y

0


Y

Y

  • Y

  • Y

  • Y

AD

Y

0


Y

Y

  • Y

  • Y

  • Y

AD

Y

0


Y

Y

  • Y

  • Y

  • Y

AD

Y

0



AD

E

K

Y

0

deflationary gap)


AD

E

Y

0

(inflationary gap)




multiplier


(investment multiplier)


1000,30003


$1000$ 1000MPC2/3$ 666.67(2/31000)$666.67MPC2/3$444.442/3666.672/3

$1000


MPC2/3312





1

2

3


80200


80200


80200

2a1(1-MPC)a2.5MPC0.6


80200

2a1(1-MPC)a2.5MPC0.6

3MPCMPS1MPS0.4



AD=C+I+G


T

AS=C+S+T


ADAS

AD=C+I+GAS=C+S+T

C+I+GC+S+T

I+GS+T

GT


CI

E

Y

0


CIG

E

Y

0


1.

1

1


2.45


1.MPCMPS

A.1

B.1

C.0

D.1

B


2.

A.

B.

C.

D.

D


3.

A.

B.

C.

D.

A


4.

A.MPC=0.6

B.MPC=0.4

C.MPC=0.9

D.MPC=0.2

C


1.


3.


4.



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