Motivation  Emotion

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Motivation: Theories. Motivation- internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour over timeDrive TheorySuggests that behaviour is pushed from within by drives stemming from basic biological needsArousal TheorySuggests that human beings seek an optimal level of arousal, not minima

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Motivation Emotion

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1. Motivation & Emotion Doneisha Burke M.Sc.

2. Motivation: Theories Motivation- internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour over time Drive Theory Suggests that behaviour is pushed from within by drives stemming from basic biological needs Arousal Theory Suggests that human beings seek an optimal level of arousal, not minimal levels of arousal Expectancy Theory Suggest that behaviour is “pulled” by expectations of desirable outcomes Goal Setting Theory Suggests that motivation can be strongly influenced by goals

3. Motivation and Maslow Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Suggest that human motives exist in a hierarchy and our most basic needs must 1st be satisfied before we move on to satisfying those less linked to biological needs. Be cautious with this theory!

4. Emotion Emotions- reactions consisting of subjective cognitive states (personal experiences we label as emotions), physiological reactions (shifts in heart rate, blood pressure) and expressive behaviour (smiling, posture).

5. Emotion: Theories Many theories of emotions have been put forward, however the 3 most influential are Canon-Bard Theory James-Lange Theory Schacter-Singer Theory Opponent Process Theory

6. Emotion: Theories Canon-Bard Theory Theory suggesting that various emotion producing events simultaneously produce physiological arousal and subjective reactions labeled as emotions.

7. Emotion: Theories James-Lange Theory According to this theory emotion provoking events produce physiological reactions and it is our awareness of these changes in bodily states that we label as emotions

8. Emotion: Theories Schacter-Singer Theory (Two Factor Theory) According to this theory emotion provoking events produce increased arousal. In response to these feelings we search the external environment to identify a cause (s) behind them Once this is done we attach a cognitive label based on what external cues tell us we should be feeling. This is in contrast to the James-Lange theory

9. Emotion: Theories Opponent Process Theory This theory suggests that an emotional reaction is followed automatically by an opposite reaction and that repeated exposure to a stimulus causes the initial reaction to weaken and the opponent process/opposite reaction to strengthen.

10. Emotion: Theories James-Lange vs. Canon-Bard Canon-Bard approach was the highly favoured & accepted of the two Studies now indicate that different emotions are indeed associated with different patterns of physiological activity (e.g. muscle & brain) The Facial Feedback (Peripheral) Hypothesis It gives support to the James- Lange Theory It suggests that changes in facial expression can produce changes in emotional states Other research includes bodily posture and tone of voice

11. The Biological Basis of Emotions Different portions of the brain have been implicated The Right Cerebral hemisphere plays a very important role in emotional functions It seems to be specialized for processing emotional information It also plays a role in the expression of emotion

12. The Biological Basis of Emotions Differences also exist between the right and left hemisphere with regard to 2 key aspects of emotion Valence- extent to which an emotion is pleasant/unpleasant Arousal- the intensity of emotion Activation of the left hemisphere is associated with approach, response to reward and positive affect Activation on the right hemisphere is associated with avoidance, withdrawal from aversive stimuli and negative affect Anterior regions are associated with valence and posterior with arousal The Amygdala plays a key role in our interpretation of emotional information relating to threat and danger

13. The External Expression of Emotions Non-verbal cues Outward signs of others emotional states, such as facial expressions, eye contact and body language Facial Expressions 6 different basic emotions are represented clearly on the human face anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness and surprise (recent findings also suggest contempt) Interpretation of the above facial expressions have been found to be dependent on situational cues and the context in which the expressions occur This suggests that interpretation of facial expressions may not be so clear

14. The External Expression of Emotions Gestures, Posture and Movements Posture, body position and movement (a.k.a. Body Language or KINESICS {scientific term}) is often reflective of our current mood/emotion Gestures Movements of body parts that convey specific meanings in a given culture

15. Emotion and Cognition Our thoughts/cognition seem to exert strong effects on our emotions E.g. It activates schemas (cognitive frameworks representing our knowledge and assumptions about specific aspects of the world) Our thoughts can influence our reaction to emotion provoking events Likewise our emotions tends to make us think/feel happy and so on It can influence our plans and intentions, perception of ambiguous stimuli and creativity among others

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