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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP. Objectives. Understand the DHCP lease and renewal process Plan DHCP for small or large networks Install DHCP Authorize a DHCP server

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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP

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70 293 mcse guide to planning a microsoft windows server 2003 network enhanced chapter 5 planning configuring a

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, EnhancedChapter 5: Planning, Configuring, And Troubleshooting DHCP


Objectives

Objectives

  • Understand the DHCP lease and renewal process

  • Plan DHCP for small or large networks

  • Install DHCP

  • Authorize a DHCP server

  • Configure a DHCP server with scopes, superscopes, and more

  • Manage and monitor a DHCP server

  • Troubleshoot DHCP

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


The dhcp process

The DHCP Process

  • On a network DHCP delivers IP addressing information automatically:

    • To client computers

    • Servers and other devices such as printers

  • Using DHCP reduces the amount of time spent configuring individual computers on the network

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Leasing an ip address

Leasing an IP Address

  • A client computer that is configured to use DHCP must obtain a lease for an IP address

  • The process to lease an address is composed of four packets:

    • DHCPDISCOVER

    • DHCPOFFER

    • DHCPREQUEST

    • DHCPACK

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Leasing an ip address continued

Leasing an IP Address (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Renewing an ip address

Renewing An IP Address

  • An IP address is permanent or timed

  • A permanent address is never reused for another client

  • A timed lease allows clients to use an IP address for a specified period of time

  • A client can initiate the release of an IP address before the lease time has expired by using the command ipconfig/release

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Renewing an ip address continued

Renewing An IP Address (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Planning dhcp

Planning DHCP

  • When planning how to implement DHCP, you must first consider whether it is a small or large network

  • A small network with a single subnet:

    • Uses only hubs and switches (no router)

    • Uses a single DHCP server to service all clients without any special configuration

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


When you have a large network

When You Have a Large Network

  • Large networks with more than one subnet use routers to move packets between the subnets

  • DHCP relays or multiple DHCP servers must be configured

  • Having several DHCP servers makes management very complex because each server is managed separately

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


When you have a large network continued

When You Have a Large Network (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Dhcp relay

DHCP Relay

  • A DHCP relay allows DHCP communication across routers

  • Using DHCP relays can drastically simplify the implementation of DHCP because it reduces or eliminates the need for multiple DHCP servers

  • DHCP relay receives broadcast DHCP packets from clients and forwards them as unicast packets to a DHCP server

  • DHCP relay must be configured with the IP address of the DHCP server to deliver the unicast packets

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Dhcp relay continued

DHCP Relay (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Fault tolerance

Fault Tolerance

  • A fault-tolerant DHCP system can be designed using multiple DHCP servers, if no two servers hand out the same range of addresses at the same time

  • When creating a fault-tolerant DHCP infrastructure, you can implement:

    • A hot spare DHCP server

    • Multiple DHCP servers

    • Clustering

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Hot spare dhcp server

Hot Spare DHCP Server

  • A hot spare is a spare server preconfigured and ready to use

  • The main advantage is simplicity

  • Disadvantages are:

    • IP address conflicts

    • Synchronizing information between two servers

    • Lag time between recognizing that the initial DHCP server is down and getting the hot spare DHCP server up and running

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Multiple dhcp servers

Multiple DHCP Servers

  • Multiple DHCP servers can service the same subnet as long as they don’t lease the same range of IP addresses

  • Multiple DHCP servers are effective when DHCP relay is used

  • If two DHCP servers are configured on a single subnet, they need to have IP address ranges of equal size

  • If a DHCP relay is used between two DHCP servers, the address range needs to be split as follows:

    • 75% to 80% of the addresses on the local DHCP server

    • 20% to 25% of the addresses on the remote DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Clustering

Clustering

  • When clustering is used for DHCP, multiple servers on the same subnet have DHCP installed, but it is active on only one server at a time

  • When DHCP fails on one server, it is automatically started on the next server

  • Servers configured in a cluster can share disk space on an external storage system; this allows them to share configuration information for services

  • Main disadvantage of clustering is the complexity involved in setting it up

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Installing dhcp

Installing DHCP

  • DHCP is a standard service that is included with Windows Server 2003

  • Not installed as part of the installation

  • Must be added later using Add or Remove Programs

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 1 installing dhcp

Activity 5-1: Installing DHCP

  • The purpose of this activity is to install DHCP on Windows Server 2003

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Dhcp server authorization

DHCP Server Authorization

  • Control over DHCP is important: an unauthorized DHCP server can hand out incorrect IP addressing information to hundreds of client computers quickly

  • To exercise control over DHCP, Windows Server 2003 must be authorized to start the DHCP Service

  • Authorization of a DHCP server takes place in Active Directory with the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 2 starting an unauthorized dhcp server

Activity 5-2: Starting an Unauthorized DHCP Server

  • The purpose of this activity is to view the results of starting an unauthorized DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 3 authorizing a dhcp server

Activity 5-3: Authorizing a DHCP Server

  • The purpose of this activity is to authorize a DHCP server in Active Directory

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Configuring dhcp

Configuring DHCP

  • Configuration of DHCP is normally done with the DHCP Management snap-in

  • The DHCP elements that can be configured include:

    • Scopes

    • Superscopes

    • Multicast scopes

    • Reservations

    • Additional options

    • Vendor and User classes

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Scopes

Scopes

  • Use a scope to define a range of IP addresses for the DHCP server to hand out to client computers

  • Each scope is configured with:

    • Name

    • Starting IP address

    • Ending IP address

    • Subnet mask

    • Lease duration

    • Description

  • Can also configure exclusions for the scope

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 4 creating a scope

Activity 5-4: Creating a Scope

  • The purpose of this activity is to create a scope to distribute IP addresses to client computers

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 5 activating and testing a scope

Activity 5-5: Activating and Testing a Scope

  • The purpose of this activity is to activate a DHCP scope, and then test it with a partner

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Superscopes

Superscopes

  • A superscope combines multiple scopes into a single logical scope

  • Can do this when a single physical part of the network has two subnets on it

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Superscopes continued

Superscopes (continued)

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 6 configuring a superscope

Activity 5-6: Configuring a Superscope

  • The purpose of this activity is to combine two scopes into a single logical unit using a superscope

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 7 deleting a superscope

Activity 5-7: Deleting a Superscope

  • The purpose of this activity is to delete a superscope and one of the scopes inside it

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Multicast scopes

Multicast Scopes

  • A multicast scope delivers multicast addresses to applications that require it

  • When you create a multicast scope, you configure:

    • Start and end IP addresses

    • TTL (Time to Live)

    • Exclusions

    • A lease duration

    • Activation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 8 creating a multicast scope

Activity 5-8: Creating a Multicast Scope

  • The purpose of this activity is to create a multicast scope to deliver multicast addresses to applications

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Reservations

Reservations

  • Use a reservation to hand out a specific IP address to a particular client computer or device on the network

  • Reservations are beneficial with firewalls

  • Reservations are created based on the MAC address of the network card on the client workstation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 9 creating and testing a reservation

Activity 5-9: Creating and Testing a Reservation

  • The purpose of this activity is to create a DHCP reservation and test it with a client

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Additional options

Additional Options

  • DHCP can hand out a variety of other IP configuration options such as:

    • Default gateway

    • DNS server

    • WINS server and many more

  • These options can be configured for the entire server, a scope, or a single reservation

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 10 setting server options

Activity 5-10: Setting Server Options

  • The purpose of this activity is to set the DNS server option for a DHCP server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 11 setting scope options

Activity 5-11: Setting Scope Options

  • The purpose of this activity is to set the default gateway in the scope options

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Vendor and user classes

Vendor and User Classes

  • Can use Vendor and User classes to differentiate between clients within a scope

  • Vendor classes are client categories based on the operating system being used

  • User classes are client categories defined based on how a client is connected to the network or by the network administrator

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Vendor and user classes continued

Vendor and User Classes (continued)

  • The DHCP server included with Windows Server 2003 has three predefined User classes :

    • Default User Class

    • Default Routing and Remote Access Class

    • Default BOOTP Class

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Managing and monitoring dhcp

Managing and Monitoring DHCP

  • To manage and monitor your DHCP server you can perform the following tasks:

    • Backing up and restoring DHCP databases

    • Reconciling scopes

    • Viewing statistics

    • Enabling DHCP audit logging

    • Enabling conflict detection

    • Modifying file paths Changing bindings

    • Viewing DHCP events in Event Viewer

    • Viewing DHCP statistics in the Performance snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Backing up and restoring dhcp databases

Backing Up and Restoring DHCP Databases

  • The DHCP Service has the following files:

    • The database holding the addressing information that has been assigned to client computers

    • Temporary database files only present during maintenance operations

    • Transaction logs of changes to the DHCP database

    • Checkpoint file that keeps track of which entries in the log files have been applied to the database

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Reconciling scopes

Reconciling Scopes

  • The DHCP database holds a summary version and a detailed version of the IP address lease information for a server

  • If there is a discrepancy between the two versions of information, you must reconcile the scope to synchronize the information

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Viewing statistics

Viewing Statistics

  • The Windows Server 2003 DHCP Service automatically tracks statistics that you can view

  • To view these statistics, right-click the server or scope, and click Display Statistics

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Enabling dhcp audit logging

Enabling DHCP Audit Logging

  • DHCP audit logs keep detailed information about DHCP server activity

  • Logging is enabled by default and keeps up to seven audit logs

  • These logs help troubleshoot why a DHCP server is not functioning as expected

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Enabling conflict detection

Enabling Conflict Detection

  • Conflict detection prevents a DHCP server from creating IP address conflicts

  • When conflict detection is enabled, a DHCP server pings an IP address before it is leased to a client computer

    • This ensures that even if another device is statically configured with that IP address, it is not leased

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Modifying file paths

Modifying File Paths

  • Can control the location of the audit log file, the DHCP database, and the automatic backup directory

  • Leave these files in their default locations

  • To modify the paths to where these files are stored, access the properties of the DHCP server in the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Changing bindings

Changing Bindings

  • If a DHCP server has multiple network cards, you can choose which network cards the DHCP Service is bound

  • DHCP server hands out IP addresses only through a network card to which the DHCP Service is bound

  • Bindings are controlled in the Advanced tab of the server Properties in the DHCP Management snap-in

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Viewing dhcp events in event viewer

Viewing DHCP Events in Event Viewer

  • In addition to audit logging, some summary information generated by the DHCP Service is placed in the system event log

  • Can view these events using Event Viewer

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 12 viewing dhcp events in event viewer

Activity 5-12: Viewing DHCP Events in Event Viewer

  • The purpose of this activity is to see the events placed into the system log by the DHCP Service

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Activity 5 13 removing dhcp

Activity 5-13: Removing DHCP

  • The purpose of this activity is to remove the DHCP Server service from your server

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Viewing dhcp statistics in the performance snap in

Viewing DHCP Statistics in the Performance Snap-in

  • When DHCP is installed on Windows Server 2003, new objects and counters are added to the Performance snap-in

  • Can monitor these counters to track the performance of DHCP over time

  • If you establish an initial benchmark of DHCP performance under average conditions, then you can tell if something is functioning abnormally later

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Dhcp troubleshooting

DHCP Troubleshooting

  • Some problems that you may encounter include:

    • All computers are unable to lease addresses

    • A single computer is unable to lease an address

    • Some computers have incorrect address information

    • A single computer has incorrect address information

    • A rogue DHCP server is leasing addresses

    • IP address conflicts are created when the DHCP server hands out addresses already used by hosts with static IP addresses

    • A client is using an APIPA address

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Summary

Summary

  • DHCP is used to assign IP address information dynamically to clients on a network

  • The commands ipconfig /release and ipconfig /renew are used to release and renew DHCP leases

  • A scope defines a range of IP addresses that are leased to clients

  • A superscope combines two scopes into a single logical unit to service network segments with two subnets

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Summary summary

Summary (summary)

  • An exclusion in a scope stops a DHCP server from handing out specific addresses or a range of addresses within a scope

  • A reservation allows you to give a specific workstation a defined IP address by tying the DHCP lease to the MAC address of the client

  • You can use vendor and User classes to configure some client computers with different options depending on the class to which they belong

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


Summary continued

Summary (continued)

  • Several task can be performed to effectively manage and monitor DHCP

  • Although DHCP is reliable some problems include computers not able to obtain IP addresses, computers obtaining duplicate IP addresses, and computers obtaining incorrect IP addresses

70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network


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