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Telecommunication & Networking. Lesson 9. Presentation Reminder. Make sure you are aware of the schedule Presentations are NOT in this room, but at CKB LT3 for both June 15, and June 22. Please be on time. Absence will affect your individual grade. Equipment request? Each team must

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Telecommunication & Networking

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Telecommunication networking

Telecommunication & Networking

Lesson 9

Presentation reminder

Presentation Reminder

  • Make sure you are aware of the schedule

  • Presentations are NOT in this room, but at CKB LT3 for both June 15, and June 22. Please be on time. Absence will affect your individual grade. Equipment request?

  • Each team must

    • Provide an overview of the business and the rationale for the establishment of an intranet

    • Provide the intranet system architecture with internetworking characteristics

    • Provide a technical tutorial of your team’s implementation responsibility (e.g., Exchange server) and the complete system operations

    • Provide Q&A

Telecommunication networking

Market Share: Top Servers ( :June 8 8:00 a.m. HKT)

Last Poll of 15 million sites, May 2000



  • Apache (60%), Microsoft-IIS (21%), Netscape-Enterprise (7%)…WebLogic (0.6%) [May 2000]

  • Host Count: Jan 2000 vs Jan 1999

    • 72,398,092 to 43,230,000: an increase of 29,168,092 or 40%

  • RedHat: dominating Linux OS (information is not complete)

Telecommunication networking











Ipoconnect com

  • A company advises and invests for customers with accounts starting with at least US$10 million; each trade will be at least US$100,000.00

  • The company has two branch offices: one in Kowloon and one in Hong Kong island

  • Total number of employees: 20 brokers + management team + technical team

  • The company only invests on IPO’s (they may underwrite some IPO’s themselves)

  • They want an intranet to facilitate their operations…!!!

Telecommunication networking



BranchHK Transaction DB/WebServer



BranchKln Transaction DB/MailServer





  • Human Resources

  • Accounting

  • Payroll



Fictitious transactions

Fictitious Transactions

  • Advise Buy/Sell 5000000

  • Buy 5000000

  • Sell 5000000

  • Confirm Buy

  • Confirm Sell

  • Enquire Portfolio

  • Portfolio …

Telecommunication networking

Communication Link?



?Private Network?









Readily Available

Telecommunication networking

Web-based User Interface

Use sockets to send raw

data (e.g., “Buy 5000000…)









Readily Available

Ipv4 ipv6 www ipv6 org

IPv4  IPv6 (


  • IP/IPSec

  • address size from 32 to 128 bits

    • address space ran out

      • globally unique address

      • network address translation (NAT)

        * expansion leads to new NAT-based

        addresses …

Lower Two Layers (DLL & PL)

Telecommunication networking



NAT box

NAT box

  • same private addresses

  • one address (that of NAT box) to many addresses (internal)

  • modification of packet information during flight expected

Ipv4 ipv6 ipng

IPv4  IPv6 (IPng)

  • Header size is twice as big even with 4 times the size of v4 network address

    • Fixed in general

    • Has a next header field (or extension header)

  • Extension makes easy

    • Integrity and authentication

  • Network Management

    • DHCP server: what if it is down?

    • Automatic configuration of a new ‘node’ without a server

  • Anycast

    • Unicast, multicast, broadcast

    • Anycast: one-to-any-member-of-a-group; the ‘nearest’

Telecommunication networking

  • QoS

    • Flow label (24 bits): service independent flow characteristics; implementation specific

    • Priority label (4 bits)

      • To allow support for different types of traffic

      • Small numbers (0-7) identify low-priority traffic (emails); the source is providing the congestion control

      • Large numbers (8-15) identify high priority traffic that is not to be dropped and must be pushed through; e.g., video; values 9-14 are being defined for other types of data



  • Customer base is not large enough that most ISPs are not doing the upgrade (in the States);

  • Equipment manufacturers (e.g., CISCO) have to be ready to fill the market when the market demand is on the upturn

  • ISPs in Asia and Europe want IPv6 because of the non-existent address space

  • Coexistence of IPv4 & IPv6

Telecommunication networking



Active networks

Active Networks

  • Passive bits through traditional data networks

  • Packets went through routers with very limited processing: header modification (NAT)

  • Instead, ‘capsules’ are injected into the network

    • ‘capsules’ are miniature programs executed at nodes (encapsulated data and code segment, or at least one instruction)

    • Every ‘message’ is a ‘capsule’ or a program

    • ‘Active’ not only at end-to-end systems (client and server), but at every node

    • Mobile, safe and efficient

Telecommunication networking

  • Applets

  • Firewalls: manipulate user’s packets according to specific ‘rules’ or applications at a corporation boundary; update?

  • Web Proxies: caching? How to cache “active” pages

  • Nomadic agents & gateways: travellers’ environments adapted to the end system (phone line in a hotel vs LAN in the office); maintain state information

  • Bidding, aggregation, information fusion, …

Telecommunication networking

A general architecture for AN by Smith, et. al., IEEE Computer, April 1999

Execution environments

Execution Environments

  • Smartpackets : BBN (under GTE)’s code life time ends when execution is complete; uses Sprocket, a special language for smart packet programming; diagnostic;

  • ANTS:

  • Netscript: “NetScript is a programming language and environment for building networked systems.”; dynamic firewall creation; (

Ants active node transfer system ieee computer april 1999

ANTS (Active Node Transfer System)(ieee computer, April, 1999)

Active networks1

Active Networks

  • Security concerns: in addition to integrity and confidentiality, for example, same as traditional networks, AN deals with unfriendly active packets at each node (e.g., that drains node resources similar to DOS attacks)

Few notes

Few notes

Canada’s optical networking (3rd generation Internet project)

  • “The initial segments of CA*net 3 were deployed in October 1998, and the entire network [8500km], which runs from from Halifax, Nova Scotia, off the East Coast to Vancouver, British Columbia, on the West Coast, was completed in July 1999. The network was extended to Seattle in April 2000, and additions to New York are scheduled to be active by mid-May.”

Vbns internet2 www vbnsplus net www internet2 edu

vBNS + +

  • “vBNS+ is a nationwide network that supports high-performance, high-bandwidth applications. Originating in 1995 as the vBNS, vBNS+ is the product of a five-year cooperative agreement between MCI Worldcom and the National Science Foundation.”

  • “Internet2, led by over 170 U.S. universities working in partnership with industry and government, is developing and deploying advanced network applications and technologies, accelerating the creation of tomorrow's Internet.”

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