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Non Chord Tones. A note that is either diatonic or chromatic that is not a member of the chord. The note can be an NCT of its duration or it could become a chord tone when the harmony beneath it changes. Types of NCTs. Passing tone (p) Neighboring tone (n) Suspension (s) Retardation (r).

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Non chord tones

Non Chord Tones

A note that is either diatonic or chromatic that is not a member of the chord.

The note can be an NCT of its duration or it could become a chord tone when the harmony beneath it changes


Types of ncts
Types of NCTs

  • Passing tone (p)

  • Neighboring tone (n)

  • Suspension (s)

  • Retardation (r)

  • Appoggiatura (app)

  • Escape Tone (e)

  • Neighbor Group (n. gr)

  • Anticipation (ant)

  • Pedal Point (ped)


Passing tone p
Passing Tone (p)

  • Usually occurs between two tones that are separated at the interval of a third. The passing tone takes the place of the scale degree between the two other tones by moving stepwise in one direction.

  • Sometimes the passing tone fills the space between two tones that are only a M2 apart. This is called a chromatic passing tone.


Passing tone p1
Passing Tone (p)

  • Approached by step.

  • Left by step in the same direction.


Neighboring tone n
Neighboring Tone (n)

  • Used to embellish a single tone.

  • The neighbor tone is approached by step and left by step in the opposite direction.

  • The neighbor tone may appear either above or below the tone being embellished.

  • These are called upper or lower neighbors.

  • Neighboring tones may be either diatonic or chromatic.


Neighboring tone n1
Neighboring Tone (n)

  • Approached by step.

  • Left by step in the opposite direction.


Suspension s
Suspension (s)

  • Holds over (or suspends) a chord tone after the other parts of the chord have moved to the next chord.

  • Almost always falls on the accented beat.


Suspension cont
Suspension cont.

Three Parts of the Suspension

  • Preparation- the tone proceeding the suspension will be the same pitch as the suspension.

  • Suspension- May or may not be tied to the preparation. This is the actual NCT.

  • Resolution- The tone following the suspension and lying a 2nd below the suspension.

    The preparation and the resolution are usually chord tones though the preparation can be an NCT.


Suspension cont1
Suspension cont.

  • Approached by same note.

  • Left by step down.


Calculating a suspension
Calculating a Suspension

  • The suspension is calculated based on the interval above the bass note in the chord over which it occurs.

  • The first part of the name is the generic interval of the bass to the suspension and the second part is the distance from the bass to the resolution.

    Most Common Suspensions

    9-8, 7-6, 4-3



Retardation r
Retardation (r)

  • Most of the rules regarding retardations are identical to suspensions.

  • Main difference is that a retardation resolves upward.

  • Can occur anywhere in a passage of music but are especially common at cadences.

  • Retardations occurring at cadences often involve the 7th scale degree resolving upward to scale degree 1.


Retardation r1
Retardation (r)

  • Approached by same note.

  • Left by step up.


Summary
Summary

  • Passing tone (p)- Approached by step and left by step in the same direction.

  • Neighboring tone (n)- Approached by step and left by step in the opposite direction.

  • Suspension (s)- Approached by same tone and left by a step down.

  • Retardation (r)- Approached by the same tone and left by a step up.


Musical examples
Musical Examples

Ex: 11-10 Bach, French Suite No. 2, Sarabande


Musical examples1
Musical Examples

Ex: 11-12 Bach, “Danket dem Herrn”


Nct s part ii
NCT’s Part II


Appoggiatura app
Appoggiatura (app)

  • An NCT that is accented, and approached by ascending leap and left by descending step.

  • This NCT was more typical of music in the 19th century than in the 18th century.


Appoggiatura app1
Appoggiatura (app)

  • Approached by leap.

  • Left by step in the opposite direction.


Escape tone e
Escape Tone (e)

  • The melodic contour of the escape tone is the exact opposite of the appoggiatura.

  • Escape tone is approached by step and left by leap in the opposite direction.

  • Escape tones are usually submetrical, unaccented, and diatonic


Escape tone e1
Escape Tone (e)

  • Approached by step.

  • Left by leap


Neighbor group n gr
Neighbor Group (n.gr)

  • A common method of embellishing a single tone by using a combination of two NCTs in succession.

  • The first NCT is an escape tone.

  • The second NCT is an appoggiatura.


Neighbor group n gr1
Neighbor Group (n.gr)

  • Combination of upper neighbor and lower neighbors.


Anticipation ant
Anticipation (ant)

  • Anticipates a chord that has not yet been reached.

  • The NCT move by either step or leap to a pitch that is a chord tone in the anticipated chord.

  • Most anticipations are approached by step. Though approach by leap is not rare.

  • The Anticipation cannot be a common tone between the two chords.


Anticipation ant1
Anticipation (ant)

  • Approached by step or leap.

  • Left by same note


Anticipation cont
Anticipation cont.

  • The least common approach to the anticipation is by leap and then being left by leap.

  • This is referred to as a free anticipation.


Pedal point ped
Pedal Point (ped)

  • This is a compositional device that begins as a chord tone then becomes an NCT as the harmony below it changes. The NCT then becomes a chord tone again.


Pedal point cont
Pedal Point cont.

  • The name for this NCT comes from its frequent use in organ music.

  • The most frequently sustained pitch is either the tonic or the dominant.

  • Pedal points occasionally occur in parts other then the bass. These are called inverted pedal points.




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