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UTELUKKELSE. Utlendingsloven § 31 Flyktningkonvensjonen art 1D, 1E og 1F. Utlendingsloven § 31. § 31. Utelukkelse fra rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28

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Utelukkelse

UTELUKKELSE

Utlendingsloven § 31

Flyktningkonvensjonen art 1D, 1E og 1F


Utlendingsloven 31

Utlendingsloven § 31

§ 31. Utelukkelse fra rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28

Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd foreligger ikke dersom utlendingen faller inn under flyktningkonvensjonen 28. juli 1951 artikkel 1D eller E, eller dersom det er alvorlig grunn til å anta at utlendingen

a) har gjort seg skyldig i en forbrytelse mot freden, en krigsforbrytelse eller en forbrytelse mot menneskeheten, slik disse forbrytelsene er definert i internasjonale avtaler som tar sikte på å gi be­stemmelser om slike forbrytelser,

b) har gjort seg skyldig i en alvorlig ikke-politisk forbrytelse utenfor Norges grenser, før han fikk adgang til Norge som flyktning, eller

c) har gjort seg skyldig i handlinger som er i strid med FNs formål og prinsipper.

Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd bokstav b foreligger heller ikke dersom det er grunnlag for å utvise utlendingen ut fra grunn­leggende nasjonale interesser, eller utlendingen har fått endelig dom for en særlig alvorlig forbrytelse og av den grunn utgjør en fare for det norske samfunnet.

Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd bokstav b foreligger heller ikke dersom utlendingen forlot hjemlandet kun for å unngå straffereaksjoner for en eller flere straffbare handlinger som kunne ha blitt straffet med fengsel dersom hand­lingene var blitt begått i Norge.

Dersom en utlending som faller inn under første ledd bokstav a eller c eller annet ledd, allerede har fått oppholdstillatelse som flyktning etter § 28, kan oppholdstillatelsen kalles tilbake.

For utlendinger som faller inn under første til fjerde ledd, men som etter § 73 annet ledd likevel er vernet mot utsendelse, gjelder § 74.


Flyktningkonvensjonen 1d

Flyktningkonvensjonen 1D

  • This Convention shall not apply to persons who are at present receiving from organs or agencies of the United Nationas other than the United Nations High Commissioner for for Refugees protection or assistance.

  • When such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason, without the position os such persons being definitly settled in accordance with the relevant resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, these persons shall ipso facto be entitled to the benefits of this Convention.


Flyktningkonvensjonen 1e

Flyktningkonvensjonen 1E

  • This Convention shall not apply to a person who is recognized by the competent authorities of the country in which he has taken residence as having the rights an obligations which are attached to the possession of the nationality of that country.


Utlendingsloven 31 1 ledd

Utlendingsloven § 31 1. ledd

  • Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd foreligger ikke dersom utlendingen faller inn under flyktningkonvensjonen 28. juli 1951 artikkel 1D eller E, eller dersom det er alvorlig grunn til å anta at utlendingen….


Al sirri and dd

Al-Sirri and DD

  • Al-Sirri (FC) (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent) and DD (Afghanistan) (FC) (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent), [2012] UKSC 54, United Kingdom: Supreme Court, 21 November 2012

  • http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22526,4565c25f2ff,50b89fd62,0,,,GBR.html

  • “The reality is that there are unlikely to be sufficiently serious reasons for considering tha applicant to be guilty unless the decision-maker can be satisfied on the balance of probabilities that he is”


Flyktningkonvensjonen 1 f

Flyktningkonvensjonen 1 F

a) har gjort seg skyldig i en forbrytelse mot freden, en krigsforbrytelse eller en forbrytelse mot menneskeheten, slik disse forbrytelsene er definert i internasjonale avtaler som tar sikte på å gi bestemmelser om slike forbrytelser,

b) har gjort seg skyldig i en alvorlig ikke-politisk forbrytelse utenfor Norges grenser, før han fikk adgang til Norge som flyktning, eller

c) har gjort seg skyldig i handlinger som er i strid med FNs formål og prinsipper


Utlendingsloven 31 2 ledd

Utlendingsloven § 31 2. ledd

Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd bokstav b foreligger heller ikke dersom det er grunnlag for å utvise utlendingen ut fra grunnleggende nasjonale interesser, eller utlendingen har fått endelig dom for en særlig alvorlig forbrytelse og av den grunn utgjør en fare for det norske samfunnet.

2. The benefit of the present provision may not, however, be claimed by a refugee whom there are reasonable grounds for regarding as a danger to the security of the country in which he is, or who, having been convicted by a final judgement of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of that country


Eu statusdirektiv artikkel 12

EU Statusdirektiv artikkel 12

  • Exclusion

  • 1. (…)

  • 2. A third country national or a stateless person is excluded from being a refugee where there are serious reasons for considering that:

  • (a) he or she has committed a crime against peace, a war crime, or a crime against humanity, as defined in the international instruments drawn up to make provision in respect of such crimes;

  • (b) he or she has committed a serious non-political crime outside the country of refuge prior to his or her admission as a refugee; which means the time of issuing a residence permit based on the granting of refugee status; particularly cruel actions, even if committed with an allegedly political objective, may be classified as serious non-political crimes;

  • (c) he or she has been guilty of acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations as set out in the Preamble and Articles 1 and 2 of the Charter of the United Nations.

  • 3. Paragraph 2 applies to persons who instigate or otherwise participate in the commission of the crimes or acts mentioned therein.


Eu statusdirektiv artikkel 14

EU Statusdirektiv artikkel 14

Revocation of, ending of or refusal to renew refugee status

1. Concerning applications for international protection filed after the entry into force of this Directive, Member States shall revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee status of a third country national or a stateless person granted by a governmental, administrative, judicial or quasi-judicial body, if he or she has ceased to be a refugee in accordance with Article 11.

2. Without prejudice to the duty of the refugee in accordance with Article 4(1) to disclose all relevant facts and provide all relevant documentation at his/her disposal, the Member State, which has granted refugee status, shall on an individual basis demonstrate that the person concerned has ceased to be or has never been a refugee in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

3. Member States shall revoke, end or refuse to renew the refugee status of a third country national or a stateless person, if, after he or she has been granted refugee status, it is established by the Member State concerned that:

(a) he or she should have been or is excluded from being a refugee in accordance with Article 12;

(b) his or her misrepresentation or omission of facts, including the use of false documents, were decisive for the granting of refugee status.

4. Member States may revoke, end or refuse to renew the status granted to a refugee by a governmental, administrative, judicial or quasi-judicial body, when:

(a) there are reasonable grounds for regarding him or her as a danger to the security of the Member State in which he or she is present;

(b) he or she, having been convicted by a final judgement of a particularly serious crime, constitutes a danger to the community of that Member State.

5. In situations described in paragraph 4, Member States may decide not to grant status to a refugee, where such a decision has not yet been taken.

6. Persons to whom paragraphs 4 or 5 apply are entitled to rights set out in or similar to those set out in Articles 3, 4, 16, 22, 31 and 32 and 33 of the Geneva Convention in so far as they are present in the Member State.


Joined cases c 57 09 and c 101 09

Joined Cases C‑57/09 and C‑101/09

B and D are Turkish nationals of Kurdish origin. While B had supported the armed guerrilla warfare waged by the DHKP/C, D had been a guerrilla fighter and senior official in the PKK. Both the PKK and the DHKP/C are organisations on the EU list of persons, groups and entities involved in terrorist acts, drawn up in the context of the measures launched by a UN Security Council Resolution to combat terrorism. Whereas B applied for asylum and protection as a refugee, D had already been granted refugee status by the German authorities. Both stated that they had left the DHKP/C and the PKK respectively and feared persecution both from the Turkish authorities and from their respective organisations. The Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (German Federal Office for migration and refugees) rejected B’s application for asylum as unfounded and held that the conditions for recognition of refugee status were not met. It also revoked the refugee status and the right of asylum previously granted to D. The Bundesverwaltungsgericht (Federal Administrative Court, Germany) asks the Court of Justice, in each of those cases, to interpret the clauses laid down in Directive 2004/83 under which a person is excluded from refugee status.

  • The Court considers first whether a case where the person concerned has been a member of an organisation on the list and has actively supported the armed struggle waged by that organisation – and perhaps occupied a prominent position within that organisation – is a case of ‘serious non-political crime’ or ‘acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations’

  • …the mere fact that the person concerned has been a member of such an organisation cannot automatically mean that that person must be excluded from refugee status.

  • …it must be possible for the competent authority to attribute to the person concerned a share of individual responsibility for the acts committed by the organisation in question while that person was a member. To that end, one of the things that the competent authority must do is to assess the true role played by the person concerned in the perpetration of the terrorist acts; his position within the organisation; the extent of the knowledge he had, or was deemed to have, of its activities; any pressure to which he was exposed; or other factors likely to have influenced his conduct. Any authority which finds, in the course of that assessment, that the person concerned has – like D – occupied a prominent position within an organisation which uses terrorist methods is entitled to presume that that person has individual responsibility for acts committed by that organisation during the relevant period. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to examine all the relevant circumstances before a decision excluding that person from refugee status can be adopted.

  • http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf;jsessionid=9ea7d0f130d52a34352e802b4697a982d9babc488ae2.e34KaxiLc3eQc40LaxqMbN4Oah8Ne0?text=&docid=79167&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=lst&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=1281095


Utlendingsloven 31 3 4 og 5 ledd

Utlendingsloven § 31 3, 4. og 5. ledd

Rett til anerkjennelse som flyktning etter § 28 første ledd bokstav b foreligger heller ikke dersom utlendingen forlot hjemlandet kun for å unngå straffereaksjoner for en eller flere straffbare handlinger som kunne ha blitt straffet med fengsel dersom handlingen var blitt begått i Norge.

Dersom en utlending som faller inn under første ledd bokstav a eller c eller annet ledd, allerede har fått oppholdstillatelse som flyktning etter § 28, kan oppholdstillatelsen kalles tilbake.

For utlendinger som faller inn under første til fjerde ledd, men som etter § 73 annet ledd likevel er vernet mot utsendelse, gjelder § 74.


Individuelt ansvar

Individuelt ansvar

  • personen har selv utført handlingen

  • Personen har medvirket

  • Med viten og vilje

  • Forstått, burde forstått eller måtte forstått

  • Strafferettslig tilregnlig

  • Selvforsvar

  • Tvang

  • (Superior orders)


Konkrete vurderinger

Konkrete vurderinger

  • Kriminelle handlinger begått i hjemlandet

  • Deltakelse i krigshandlinger / krig

  • Militær tilknytning

  • Tilknytning til politi / ordensvesen / etterretning

  • Grensevakter / fengselsvakter

  • Ledere - både sivile / politiske og militære


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