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Official and personal use of the flag has continued with controversy, as it is an emotional topic Struggle between tradition and change Disagreement over its symbolism Racist relic and icon of supremacy Southern heritage and distinct cultural and sectional pride.

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  • Known as Southern Cross, Dixie Flag or Rebel Flag controversy, as it is an emotional topic

    • The cross of St. Andrew, Scotland’s patron saint

      • South’s obsession with Scotland’s “Lost Cause”

  • Cross positioned diagonally to not alienate South’s Jewish citizens with Christian symbolism

  • Rectangular version never historically represented the Confederacy as a nation.

    • But it has become a recognized symbol of the South


Issue of racial sensitivity controversy, as it is an emotional topic

  • Flag as a symbol of a racist past, a past of servitude, slavery and second-class citizenship

  • African-Americans have no desire to revel in so-called glory and bravery of such a heritage

  • Blacks not likely to have any fond, idealistic remembrances of the Old South or have any sympathy for the Confederate cause

    • The flag is a semi-official symbol that represents old white traditions and exclusionary feelings toward Blacks

    • Since the symbol lingers, that’s evidence that racism is alive and well


Stars and Bars controversy, as it is an emotional topic

  • First official flag of CSA: March 1861-May 1863

  • Inspired by Austria’s national flag and designed by a Prussian artist in Alabama

  • 1st Battle of Bull Run: similarity of the Stars and Bars & the Stars and Stripes caused confusion and military problems

    • General P.G.T. Beauregard wanted a new national flag or a new battle flag for his own command


Second National Flag controversy, as it is an emotional topic

  • “The Stainless Banner”

    • May 1863 – March 1865

  • Criticized because it could be mistaken for a flag of truce and because it was too easily soiled.

  • Often referred to as The battle flag of the Confederacy since it was the design that was the basis of more that 180 separate Confederate military battle flags


Third National Flag controversy, as it is an emotional topic

  • “The Blood Stained Banner”

    • March 1865 to April 1865

  • This redesign had as little as possible of Yankee blue

    • symbolized the primary origins of the people of the South

    • the cross of England and the red bar from the flag of France


20 controversy, as it is an emotional topicth CenturyReturn to popular culture

  • World War II

    • Military units with Southern nicknames made the flag their unofficial banner

    • USS Columbia flew the flag throughout combat in South Pacific

    • Battle of Okinawa, the Rebel Company raised the flag over Shuri Castle

  • College football

    • UNC fans brought flags to game in October 1947

    • U.Va. fans did same in November 1947

  • Dixiecrats

    • Took flag as symbol when Strom Thurmond ran for president in 1948

    • A symbol against civil rights and the impositions of a distant federal govt.

  • Klan

    • Also started using the flag in the 1940s


  • The flag’s use has been vigorously debated in many Southern states the 1990s

  • It’s a culture war with most “flag flaps” sparked by African-Americans protesting the badge of white supremacy

  • The irony of North Carolina changing its flag is that it more closely resembles the first official flag of the Confederacy


  • In 2000, flag removed from top of State House dome to a monument in front of the Capitol.

    • NAACP and NCAA maintain official boycott of South Carolina.

  • Economics and Tourism

    • Fear of offending tourists and scaring off businesses

    • The “Autobahn” of the South vs. the “Cracker Capital of America”




University of Mississippi inspiration

  • “Ole Miss” as plantation owner’s wife

  • “Dixie” discontinued as fight song

  • No more Confederate Flag waving in stands

  • Mascot changed from Colonel Reb to brown bear

  • “It’s hate speech because its use in the South was a use intended to convey the ideology of white supremacy and the inhumanity and subordination of African-Americans”


“The Proper Way to Hang a inspirationConfederate Flag”

  • Art display that depicts that flag being lynched from a 13-foot-high wooden gallows

  • Museum is across the street from the Florida Capitol, where, until 2001 a Confederate flag flew

    • Gov. Jeb Bush had it removed and placed in a museum



  • One historian summarized the `decade’ from 1954 to 1968 this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

  • “What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore – and then run?

    Or does it just explode?

    • Langston Hughes in poem Harlem

  • “I know one thing we did right, was the day we started to fight, keep your eyes on the prize, hold on hold on”

  • “Eyes on the Prize”: `54-`68


  • Plessey v. Ferguson this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.” 1896

  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas 1954

  • Brown II 1955

    • “with all deliberate speed”

      • Immediately vs. long time or never

  • 1955 and `56: de-segregation went smoothly in MD, KY, DL, OK, MO. AL initially declared it would obey courts


Massive white resistance
Massive White Resistance this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

  • Jerry Falwell: black people destined to be servants because of curse from God; Court decision inspired by Moscow.

  • White Citizens’ Councils

    • Every southern city: preserve South’s “sacred heritage of freedom”

    • Intimidate blacks (lose jobs, evict, deny credit)

    • VA closed all public schools to thwart integration

  • Strom Thurmond: “The Southern Manifesto”

    • Brown = “unwarranted power by Court, contrary to Constitution”

      • Albert Gore Sr. of TN and Lyndon B. Johnson of TX = only southern senators not to sign it

  • De-segregation ground to halt

    • 1958: 13 school systems desegregated

    • 1960: only 17 total


Little rock nine 1957
Little Rock Nine - 1957 this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

  • Orval Faubus posted 250 National Guard soldiers outside Little Rock Central HS to … prevent 9 black youths from entering

    • Federal court overruled gov – removed troops, let kids face mob

  • Ike sent 1,100 paratroopers

    • 1st time since Reconst. troops sent to South

  • Faubus closed it `58

  • 8 of 9 endured abuse, harassment, curses

  • Elizabeth Eckford


The Problem We All Live With this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

Norman Rockwell painted The Problem We All Live With in 1964. It depicts federal marshals guarding six-year-old Ruby Bridges on her way to elementary school in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1960.


The clinton 12
The Clinton 12 this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

  • Clinton High School, (Clinton, TN) integrated in 1956 – one earlier than Little Rock Central

  • “The only thing I was thinking about on the first day of school" said Bobby Cain, the first African-American graduate of CHS, “was my safety, in terms of entering the school, and hoping that I would be able to go back to my home that evening.”

  • Prior to 1956, African-Americans in Clinton were required to go to a high school 18 miles away in Knoxville, TN

  • Though the response to this integration was initially positive, but changed when white supremacists started showing up with anti-integration propaganda. Almost instantly, violence erupted, with everyone in the town choosing sides. The tension reached a breaking point two years later when CHS was blown up.


Southern universities
Southern Universities this way: “This decade . . . saw more social change, more court decisions, and more legislation in the name of civil rights than any decade in our nation’s history. Those changes were forced by millions of Americans who, with a sense of service and justice, kept their eyes on the prize of freedom.”

  • ’62 James Meredith at Ole Miss

    • JFK sent in National Guard

  • University of Alabama

    • Gov. George Wallace personally blocked door

    • “segregation today, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever”



Bill cosby s pound cake speech
Bill Cosby’s “Pound Cake” Speech schools

  • 50th anniv of Brown decision (2004): he criticized blacks who put higher priorities on sports, fashion, and "acting hard" than on education, self-respect, and self-improvement.

  • Admonished those blacks who did not assist or concern themselves with the individuals who are involved with crime or have counter-productive aspirations. He further described those who needed attention as "blacks who had forgotten the sacrifices of those in the Civil Rights Movement.”


Equality for All: schoolshttp://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/6-legacy/equality-for-all.html


  • Just days before he was sworn in, President Obama was giving his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.Obama's 7-year-old daughter, Sasha, told her father that Lincoln's speech was really long. Would he have to give a speech as long? Obama's answer was completed by his older daughter, 10-year-old Malia."I said, 'Actually, that one is pretty short. Mine may even be a little longer,' " Obama told CNN recently. "At which point, Malia turns to me and says, 'First African-American president, better be good.' "The story is light-hearted, but it touches on a delicate question: Will people hold Obama to a different standard because he is the first African-American president?Americans appear split by race on that answer. According to a CNN/Opinion Research Corp. poll, 53 percent of blacks say the American public will hold Obama to a higher standard than past presidents because he is black. Most whites -- 61 percent -- say Obama's race will not matter in how he will be judged.The question divided several people who were racial pioneers themselves.Alexander Jefferson was one of the first blacks allowed to become a fighter pilot. He was a member of the Tuskegee Airmen, a group of black pilots who escorted bombers in World War II."We had to be twice as good to be average," he said.


Emmett till
Emmett Till his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • 1955 lynching of 14-year-old from Chicago

    • Galvanized emerging civil rights movement

  • Small breach of white supremacy’s racial etiquette

    • Said “Bye, baby” to wife of grocery store owner in Money, Mississippi

  • Overwhelming evidence and testimony of Till’s uncle and other blacks, but all-white jury acquitted the two accused.

  • 1956: murderers sold their confession to Look magazine and bragged about their escape from justice

  • 2004: new evidence indicates that 10 people may have been involved


Is Trayvon Martin this generation's Emmett Till? his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.March 2012

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PgNvPdRVnyQ until 2:20

http://www.thegrio.com/specials/trayvon-martin/trayvon-martin-death-slain-black-youth-galvanized-nation.php slide show


Montgomery bus boycott
Montgomery Bus Boycott his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • Movement did not emerge out of the blue

    • Years of planning by black groups and NAACP for test case challenging segregation of city buses

  • March 1955: 15-year-old girl arrested for refusing to give up seat

    • But she unmarried and pregnant, so not appropriate symbol

  • December 1955: 43-year-old seamstress and civil rights activist.

    • She had not planned to resist on that day, but had been training for that kind of challenge for years


Montgomery bus boycott continued
Montgomery Bus Boycott, continued his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • Martin Luther King, Jr.

    • 26-year-old minister asked to be president of Montgomery Improvement Association, coordinators of the protest

      • “We’re tired of being trampled over by the iron feet of oppression … if we are wrong, the Supreme Court is wrong, the Constitution is wrong, God is wrong.”

    • Targeted by FBI’s Hoover

      • “most dangerous man in U.S.”; prove MLK = communist; threatened to expose his extramarital affairs; stopped warning MLK of death threats

  • Walking for Freedom

    • Boycott of 381 days: walking to work, carpools

    • Bus company suffered, white businesses wilted

  • Victory

    • November 1956: Supreme Court ordered Montgomery bus segregation to end

    • Dec 1956: blacks could sit anywhere and become drivers


Sclc vs sncc
SCLC vs. SNCC his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) - 1957.

    • 2 goals: use nonviolent protest and the other to appeal to the moral conscience of Americans. King was elected as the first president

  • SCLC coordinated the civil rights activities of local organizations (and black churches for moral terms). Involved in desegregation of Birmingham, Alabama;, the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom; voting rights in Selma, Alabama; and various sit-ins and voter registration drives.

  • late 1960s, SCLC shifted to attacking poverty, a cause of inner-city violence.

    • SCLC organized the Poor People’s Campaign. The campaign took affect after King’s assassination in 1968 under the leadership of the new president, Ralph Abernathy. However, with the absence of King, the campaign was not effective in initiating the enactment of legislation. The campaign ended on June 19, 1968.

  • The SCLC is still in existence today. It focuses it efforts on hate crimes, discrimination, and police brutality.


Mlk and non violent resistance
MLK and Non-Violent Resistance his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.


Sclc vs sncc1
SCLC vs. SNCC his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced "snick"). SNCC began with an $8 grant from the SCLC.

  • SNCC played key roles in Freedom Rides, the March on Washington, and Mississippi Freedom Summer.

  • Late 60s - led by fiery leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, SNCC focused on “black power", and then protesting against the Vietnam War.

  • In 1969, SNCC officially changed its name to the Student National Coordinating Committee to reflect the broadening of its strategies. It passed out of existence in the 1970s.


Freedom rides
Freedom Rides his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • In 1947, responding to a Supreme Court decision outlawing discrimination in interstate travel, CORE (non-violent group in Chicago) sponsored a Freedom Ride that they called a "Journey of Reconciliation." They rode buses throughout much of the upper south with incident

  • In 1961, Supreme Court decided to end desegregation not only in travel, but also in bus terminal facilities

    • new set of Freedom Rides. 7 blacks and 6 whites left Washington, D.C. for New Orleans on two buses

    • Mob attacked in SC; in AL, bus burned, riders hit with pipes; bus company refused to continue, riders flew to New Orleans


Freedom rides continued
Freedom Rides, continued his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • Tried again, TN to New Orleans

    • Prove that violence couldn’t stop them

    • Jailed in AL; police drove them back to TN, JFK asked for police escort

    • More beatings, including media cameramen

  • Made it to MS

    • Jailed again

    • Rides essentially halted


Stand up by sitting down
Stand Up by Sitting Down his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • CORE’s sit-in tactic from 40s

  • NC A&T: 4 frosh at Woolworth’s counter in Greensboro

  • Students followed at Fisk U., Spelman College

  • “All over America, the 99% movement (Occupy _____) is getting ready for 60 days of protests, sit-ins, rallies, marches this spring — all aimed and confronting the power, greed, and influence of the 1%” MoveOn.org (March 2012)


The albany movement
The Albany Movement his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • From voter registration to totally desegregating this GA town

  • Overwhelm the jails

    • Fill jails with protesters (2,000) and stay in to “break the system down from within. Our ability to suffer will overcome their ability to hurt us.”

  • Sherriff Pritchett used non-violent techniques

  • MLK’s most glaring defeat – people questioned future of civil rights


Birmingham
Birmingham his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

  • Project C for Confrontation

    • Boycotts, pickets, marches

  • Most wide ranging demands

    • Public facilities, employment, schools, services, housing

  • Eugene “Bull” Connor was not Pritchett

    • Fire hoses, dogs

  • MLK’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

  • Children’s Crusade


May 2011 his daughters a tour of the Lincoln Memorial when one of them pointed to a copy of Abraham Lincoln's second inaugural address carved into the wall.

“walk to work” protests about govt.

Protest movements come in colors—the yellow of people power in the Philippines, Ukraine’s orange, the green of Iran’s brutalized democrats.

Some protests are quashed with color. In Uganda, security forces sprayed opposition leaders and activists with a vivid pink dye—a mark intended both to humiliate dissidents and make it easier for police to nab them.


Indian policemen fire purple colored water from a water cannon on Kashmir government employees during a protest in April 2011


Demonstrators are sprayed with a water cannon by Israeli border police during a protest against Israel's separation barrier near the West Bank town of Ramallah, August 2006


Riot policemen use water cannons to disperse thousands of protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising


The march on washington
The March on Washington protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Images from Birmingham prompted action from JFK

    • June 1963: “We face a moral crisis. It cannot be met by police force. It cannot be left to demonstrations. It is time to act in Congress.”

    • Proposed strongest civil rights bill ever, but southern bloc too powerful

  • All big orgs: SCLC, SNCC, CORE, NAACP resurrected idea of marching on D.C. “for jobs and freedom”

    • A. Philip Randolph proposed it in 1941 to protest black unemployment


Marion anderson 1939
Marion Anderson protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising1939

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAONYTMf2pk


The march on washington1
The March on Washington protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • August 1963: 250,000 marchers at Lincoln Memorial to show support for civil rights bill and overall movement

  • King delivered (without notes!) a vision of a future America free of the evils of racism where all God’s children would be judged by the content of their character, not by the color of their skin.

    • Received Nobel Peace Prize `64

    • National holiday in his name starting in `86


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CaYN1TJLCG0 protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

Start at 1:25


Four little girls
Four Little Girls protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Month later, white racists bombed the 16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham and killed four little girls attending Sunday school.

  • Event shook the nation, and combined with reaction to assassination of JFK two months later, set stage for real change


Civil rights act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964 protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • LBJ quickly supported its passage as memorial to JFK

    • Pushed bill through Congress despite marathon filibuster by opponents

  • Banned discrimination in all public places

    • Restaurants, hotels, gas stations, schools, parks, playgrounds, libraries, swimming pools

    • Legally mandated segregation was over

  • Banned discrimination by employers on basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, and sex in regard to hiring, promoting, firing

  • Govt. could withhold federal money from any program practicing or permitting discrimination

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission created to monitor discrimination in employment


Medgar evers
Medgar Evers protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Birmingham = major turning point

    • Summer 1963 saw big increase in marches, demonstrations and sit-ins. Also had 10 protesters killed and 20,000 arrested.

  • White extremist Byron de la Beckwith gunned down Medgar Evers in the driveway of his home in June 1963 in Jackson, MS

    • Evers had been leader of NAACP’s Mississippi organization


Medgar Evers protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Byron De La Beckwith (KKK member) was twice tried for murder in 1964. Both trials ended in mistrials with the all-white juries unable to reach a verdict. A third trial in 1994 (8 Blacks on jury) convicted Beckwith

    • He had boasted of the killing for over three decades

  • Life imprisonment; died in 2001 at age 80

  • The film Ghosts of Mississippi (1996) tells the story of the murder and 1994 trial.


Mississippi freedom summer
Mississippi Freedom Summer protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Without ballot, blacks could never drive racist politicians from office, gain a fair hearing in court, reduce police and mob violence, or get equal services from state and local govts.

  • 2 most repressive states = AL & MS

    • By summer `64, attention shifted from AL to MS, “toughest nut to crack” – symbolic center of racism and violence – to be site of massive project known as “Freedom Summer”

  • Thousand northern white students from elite colleges

    • Get media attention & force fed. govt. to provide protection

    • Michael Schwerner & Andrew Goodman (white NYers) and James Chaney (black Mississippian) disappeared – wrongly arrested & delivered to KKK

  • Other white terrorism

    • 30 homes and 40 churches bombed, 35 civil rights workers shot at, 80 people beaten, 6 murdered, 1000 arrested

    • SNCC now rejected MLK’s commitment to nonviolence


Selma and voting rights act of 1965
Selma and Voting Rights Act of 1965 protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • In AL, 14% of black citizens could vote (MS = 5%)

    • Selma residents led voter drives, but blocked by sheriff

  • SCLC planned mass march from Selma to Montgomery, March 1965 (50+ miles)

    • “Bloody Sunday”: turned back by tear gas, beatings, and horse tramplings.

    • Two weeks later, march successfully completed

  • LBJ proclaimed “We shall overcome”

    • Act outlawed educational requirements for voting

    • Black voters increased by millions

  • 24th Amendment


Mlk s new strategy
MLK’s New Strategy protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Moved campaign north to show national range of civil rights

    • Marched into Chicago’s white suburbs to provoke violence

  • Surprised by degree of racial discrimination that intertwined with economics

    • “What good is it to be allowed to eat in a restaurant if you can’t afford a hamburger?”

  • Next project: integrated, non-violent “Poor People’s Campaign” and demand for guaranteed income


King s murder
King’s Murder protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • More involved with labor issues: to Memphis to support striking sanitation workers

  • King murdered by James Earl Ray as stood on balcony of Lorraine Motel

    • Rage in black communities: 125 cities had uprisings.

  • Few days later, Civil Rights Act `68 passed (outlawed discrimination in home sales and rentals)


Black muslims malcolm x
Black Muslims & Malcolm X protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Founded in 1930s by Elijah Muhammad

  • Preached black nationalism: separation from whites to create their own nation

  • Teachings embraced by Malcolm Little in prison

  • `54: minister of Harlem’s Temple #7

    • Voice of northern urban areas

    • Dismissed integration and nonviolence

  • “Revolutions are never based upon love-your-enemy or singing `We Shall Overcome.’ Revolutions are based on bloodshed.” (Stop singing and start swinging)

  • “If you think we are here to tell you to love the white man, you have come to the wrong place.”


Malcolm s departure
Malcolm’s Departure protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • `64: split with Elijah, founded new group – Muslim Mosque, Inc.

  • Affected by Mecca pilgrimage

  • Changed name to Malik El-Shabazz

  • Rejected NOI’s doctrine that white people = evil, and promoted connection `tween U.S. civil rights and colonialism in Africa

  • `65 assassinated in Harlem


Stokely carmichael and black power
Stokely Carmichael and Black Power protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • SNCC head who gave up on ideal of interracial-ivity

  • `66: After James Meredith shot on his one-man “March Against Fear”, SNCC and Carmichael completed walk.

  • Then popularized slogan “Black Power”

    • “The only way we can stop white men from whipping us is to take over. We’ve been saying freedom for six years and we have nothing. We have to start saying `Black Power’.”

  • Promoting positive self-identity, racial pride, independent political & economic power

  • Stokely later changed name to Kwame Ture led All-African People’s Revolutionary Party from late `60s to late `90s

  • Hubert “H. Rap” Brown – next head of SNCC

    • Increased militancy: called whites “honkies” and police “pigs” and “violence was American as apple pie”

    • “Black folks built America, and if America doesn’t come around, we’re going to burn America down.”


The black panther party
The Black Panther Party protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

“The Negro himself no longer believes in the good faith of white Americans – if, indeed, he ever could have.” (James Baldwin, The Fire Next Time)

  • Voiced and organized new black militancy: Black Panther Party (for Self-Defense)

    • Created by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA in `66

    • Combined Black Nationalist ideology with Marxist-Leninist doctrines

      • “Power flows out of the barrel of a gun” (quote from Mao Zedong)

  • Imposing in berets, shades, leather jackets, and “Afros”, patrolled neighborhoods with guns to monitor police


The black panther party1
The Black Panther Party protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Series of bloody confrontations took attention from their goals and projects (free breakfast and health care)

  • FBI and COINTELPRO

    • Undercover agents infiltrated and provoked violence

Huey Newton


  • Prisoners’ Rights protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

    • Angela Davis

    • Attica Prison

      • Police assault = “bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since Civil War”


Burn baby burn inner city rebellions 60s and 70s
“Burn, Baby, Burn”: Inner-City Rebellions protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising`60s and 70s

For homework, bring in info.

  • Watts

  • Newark

  • Detroit

  • Philadelphia

  • Omaha

  • Harlem

  • Hough

  • Camden

  • Washington, D.C.

  • York, PA

  • Orangeburg

  • Baltimore

  • Louisville


Inner city rebellions
Inner-City Rebellions protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Alienation and anger

    • Poverty line, substandard housing, unemployment rate

  • Civil Rights legislation did not resolve disparities in inner city

    • “the masses of Negroes are starkly aware that recent civil rights victories benefited a very small percentage of middle-class Negroes while their predicament remained the same or worsened.”

    • Few whites understood depths of black despair that erupted into violence each summer between `65 and `69


Watts
Watts protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Poverty and anger at brutal behavior of LA cops

  • Drunk driving check on black man

  • Crowd pelted cops

  • Gov. sent in National Guard; Watts burned to rubble after 6 days


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uy_IlJICcGY protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising


Newark
Newark protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • White flight, white politicians, deteriorated schools, unemployment and … police brutality

  • Black cab driver beaten in police custody; protesters firebombed police station

  • National Guard, 4 days of rioting

  • Lilley Commission – est. by NJ Gov Richard Hughes to study the civil disorders in NJ

  • Black Power Conference, in Newark, called for partitioning U.S. into separate black and white nations


New york times real estate review
New York Times protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising real estate review

  • SOUTH ORANGE, which is laid out along the side of NJ's Second Mountain, stands in sharp contrast to the inner cities east of it. Its expensive homes on large, heavily treed lots, keep their value, showing that integration can work.

  • "Thirty years ago, during the race riots in Newark, many people fled from the surrounding lily-white communities," said a long-time resident. "But South Orange, although posh, was an integrated community then. Because race was not considered a problem, people just stayed put."


Detroit
Detroit protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Police raided bar in black community

  • Deadliest of 60 urban rebellions in `67

  • National Guard sent in by Gov. Romney, U.S. troops sent by LBJ


Kerner commission
Kerner Commission protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Est. by LBJ to “use conscience to attack conditions that breed despair and violence to have decent society”

  • Riots caused by “white racism”; two societies, “one white, one black – separate and unequal”

  • Report called for more govt. aid to cities: better housing, more integrated schools, millions of new jobs, income supplementation

    • None of proposals enacted


Lbj s war
LBJ’s War protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Riots undercut support for govt. aid

  • LBJ’s Medicare and Medicaid successful, but biggest Great Society program – “unconditional war on poverty” – met resistance

  • Economic Opportunity Act

    • Head Start, Upward Bound, VISTA

  • Resources to Vietnam

    • “If I left the woman I really loved – the Great Society – in order to get involved with that bitch of a war on the other side of the world, then I would lose everything at home.”


Moynihan report
“Moynihan Report protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising”

  • Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Asst. Sec. of Labor - “The Negro Family: The Case of National Action”

  • Civil Rights laws not solve problems of inner city

    • Vulnerability of black family to “three centuries of almost unimaginable treatment” by white society: exploitation under slavery, strain of urbanization, and persistent unemployment

  • Guarantee annual income via Family Assistance Plan (FAP)

    • Most significant failed social program in U.S. history


More court remedies
More Court Remedies protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • In U.S. v. Montgomery County Board of Education (1969) - desegregation order for teachers: ratio of the races est. by a judge.

  • Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)

    • “busing = an appropriate remedy for the problem of racial imbalance among schools”

    • Widespread use of busing throughout South

  • In North, whites used demonstrations and boycotts

    • White students and their mothers clashed with police outside South Boston HS

    • Violence continued for 2 years in Boston


The rainbow coalition
The Rainbow Coalition protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

  • Jesse Jackson

    • 2 unsuccessful bids for Pres (`84, `88)

  • Coalition of people who felt politically marginalized and underrepresented

    • Blacks, whites, liberals, Latinos, feminists, environmentalists

    • Econ policy on tax reform, deficit reduction, and employment


  • Affirmative Action protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprising

    • Example: NFL (and college) legally required to interview black candidates for coaching positions

  • Reverse Discrimination


Affirmative action supreme court cases
Affirmative Action: protestors during a demonstration, October 2006, in Budapest, as Hungary commemorates the 50th anniversary of its 1956 anti-Soviet uprisingSupreme Court Cases

  • United Steelworkers v. Weber

  • Fullilove v. Klutznick

  • Memphis Firefighters v. Stotts

  • Wygant v. Jackson Board of Education

  • Local 93 of International Association of Firefighters v. City of Cleveland

  • Local 28 of Sheet Metal Workers v. EEOC

  • U.S. v. Paradise

  • Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County

  • American Tobacco Co. v. Patterson

  • Martin v. Wilks

  • Richmond v. J. Croson and Co.

  • Metro Broadcasting v. FCC

  • Adarand Constructors v. Pena



  • “Rosa Parks schoolssat in 1955. Martin Luther King walked in 1963. Barack Obama ran in 2008. That our children might fly.”

    • Jay Z, “My President is Black”

      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ucn-I7Lne4&feature=fvwrel

  • “Now we are all drinking from the same water fountain,” David Dinkins (former mayor of NYC), the day after the 2008 election


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