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Psychological Climate and Safety in the Construction Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour. Susanna Larsson, Anders Pousette, Marianne Törner 3RD International Conference WORKING ON SAFETY 12-15 September 2006. 2. Aim.

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Psychological Climate and Safety in the Construction Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Susanna Larsson, Anders Pousette, Marianne Törner

3RD International Conference

WORKINGONSAFETY

12-15 September 2006


2 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Aim

  • Examining mechanisms by which the psychological climate (PC) may influence self-reported safety behaviour (SB)

?

?

PC

SB

?

?

Mediated relationsships


Psychological climate

3 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Psychological climate

Individual perceptions of the work environment

encompass the psychological work characteristics:

  • Job/Role

    role clarity, work control, information access, possibilities for work development

  • Leadership

    quality of planning, solving conflicts, social support, feedback

  • Workgroup

    social support, sense of community, feedback

    (Jones and James, 1979)


4 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Data

  • Cross-sectional questionnaire data

  • - assembled in a study of safety in Swedish construction industry 2004

  • questionnaire comprised dimensions of psychological climate(8), individual attitudes(4) and safety behaviour(3)


Sample

5 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Sample

  • Non-managerial construction workers (N=189)

    -mean age 45.3

    - mean job tenure 23.4

    - 1/3 at least high school education

    - 100% male

  • Response rate 85%


Statistical analysis

6 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Statistical Analysis

  • Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)

  • Hypothesis testing:

  • Is the hypothesised model a good representation of the empirical data ?

  • Comparison between different hypothesised models

  • -which model is the best representation of the empirical data?


Mechanisms

7 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Structural Interactive Personal safety behaviour

Mechanisms

Four hypothetical models: The models A and B, C and D

(Parker et al., 2003; Neal et al., 2000)

(Parker et al., 2003);Neal et al., 2000; Pousette et al., 2004)

Psychological climate

Safety knowledge

Workplace commitment

Job satisfaction

Safety motivation


Analysis

8 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

Analysis

  • Three steps:

  • Assessment of fit between each of the four hypothesised models and empirical data (c2, RMSEA, CFI, c2/df)

  • Comparisons between the four hypothesised models (c2- difference test, AIC)

  • Significant regression parameters

  • tested in competition (C.R.>1.96; p.<.05)

  • Non-significant regression parameters

  • were removed – parsimonius model


  • Result

    9 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Result

    Step 1.

    Assessment of fit - all four models acceptable fit

    Model AModel BModel CModel D

    c2 =1717.4 c2 =1706.0 c2 =1700.2 c2 =1707.3

    RMSEA=.0067 RMSEA=.0067 RMSEA=.0067 RMSEA=.0067

    CFI=.969 CFI=.969 CFI=.970 CFI=.969

    c2/df=1.849 c2/df=1.842 c2/df=1.836 c2/df=1.842

    RMSEA: .05-.08 acceptable fit ; <.05=closer fit

    CFI>.900 acceptable fit

    c2/df: values between 1-2 acceptable fit


    Result1

    10 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Result

    Step 2.

    Comparisons between the models

    A, B, C, D

    Model AModel BModel CModel D

    … Dc2(A)=11.4** Dc2(A)=17.2*** Dc2(A)=10.1**

    AIC=2019.372 AIC=2013.962 AIC=2008.243 AIC=2013.320

    df=929 df=926 df=926 df=927

    c2 =1706.0 c2 =1700.2c2 =1707.3

    Dc2(D)=7.1***

    **: significantly better than Model A (p<.05)

    ***significantly better than Model A, D (p<.01)

    AIC: lower values better fit


    Result2

    11 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Result

    Model C the best representation of empirical data

    Psychological climate

    Safety knowledge

    Workplace commitment

    Job satisfaction

    Safety motivation

    Personal

    safety behaviour

    Structural safety behaviour

    Interactive

    safety behaviour


    Result3

    12 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Result

    Step 3.

    Significant regression parameters from the models B and D, introduced in model C

    Non-significant parameters removed one by one


    Result4

    13 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Result

    Final model

    c2 =1700.4

    RMSEA=.066

    CFI=.970

    AIC=1998.448

    c2/df=1.826

    Illustrations of significant paths (p<.05)

    Psychological climate

    Job satisfaction

    Work site commitment

    Safety knowledge

    Safety motivation

    Structural safety behaviour

    Interactive safety behaviour

    Personal safety behaviour


    Discussion

    14 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Discussion

    • The psychological climate related to safety behaviour both directly and indirectly

    • an important area for safety at work

    • Testing four possible mediators in competition clear indication that:

    • - safety knowledge and safety motivation key mediators explaining how the influence between the psychological climate and safety behaviour may occur


    Discussion1

    15 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Discussion

    • In a favourable psychological climate the individual:

    • acquires better knowledge on safety

    • becomes more motivated to behave safely


    Discussion2

    16 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Discussion

    • Fostering a favourable psychological climate - within the management scope

    • Changing workers safety behaviour could be achieved through improvning managerial behaviour


    Discussion3

    17 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Discussion

    Different mechanisms explaining the three aspects of safety behaviour:

    • Personal safety behaviour

    • …using safety equipment, employing safety rules

    • safety motivation

    • - safety knowledge

    • Interactive safety behaviour

    • …raise safety issues in daily work, prevent co-workers and managements hazardous behaviour, provide suggestions for safety improvment

    • - safety motivation


    Discussion4

    18 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Discussion

    • Structural safety behaviour:

    • …participation in safety inspections, safety analyses, risk assessment, safety campaigns

    • direct influence from the psychological climate

    • none of the four hypothesised mediators at work

    • due to work role/assignment?

    • a supportive psychological climate important


    Conclusions

    19 Industry – Mediated Influence on Safety Behaviour

    Conclusions

    • Psychological climate, safety motivation and safety knowledge

    • important areas for improving safety at work

    - safety knowledge and safety motivation key mediators explaining the influence between the psychological climate and safety behaviour

    - different mechanisms at work behind different aspects of safety behaviour


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