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Department of Chemistry CHEM1020 General Chemistry *********************************************** PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Department of Chemistry CHEM1020 General Chemistry *********************************************** Instructor: Dr. Hong Zhang Foster Hall, Room 221 Tel: 931-6325 Email: [email protected] CHEM1020/General Chemistry _________________________________________ Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry.

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Department of Chemistry CHEM1020 General Chemistry ***********************************************

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Department of chemistry chem1020 general chemistry

Department of Chemistry

CHEM1020 General Chemistry

***********************************************

Instructor: Dr. Hong Zhang

Foster Hall, Room 221

Tel: 931-6325

Email: [email protected]


Chem1020 general chemistry chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry

CHEM1020/General Chemistry_________________________________________Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Today’s Outline

    ..Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    ..Introduction to functional groups

    ..Alkyl groups


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    …Review of electronic structure of chlorine atoms

    Valence electronic structure of Cl:

    ..

    :Cl:

    .

    Cl has one single unpaired electron available for bonding ..

    Cl is much like H in this way: ·H, ·Cl:

    ..


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry1

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    …If hydrocarbons have chlorine atoms as a new component, then they are different new organic compounds.

    …Because of the similarity between Cl and H in bonding (forming one single covalent bond), Cl can replace H in many hydrocarbons with identical carbon skeletons and structures


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry2

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Examples of hydrocarbons:

    alkanes: Replacing H with Cl in a CH4

    CH3Cl, methyl chloride, or chloromethane

    CH2Cl2, dimethyl chloride, or dichloromethane or methylene chloride

    CHCl3, trimethyl chloride, or trichloromethane, or chloroform

    CCl4, tetramethyl chlordie, tetrachloramethane, or carbon tetrachloride


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry3

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    …Chlorinated hydrocarbons can cause severe liver damage

    …Some uses of chlorinated hydrocarbons can be found on pp.248

    …DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), highly toxic insecticides, banned now,

    PCBs, polychlorinated biphenyls

    …All chlorinated hydrocarbons have similar properties, and mostly toxic


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry4

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorofluorocharbons (CFC) and fluorocarbons

    …Carbon compounds containing fluorine and chlorine are called CFCs.

    CFCs have been used as dispersing gases in aerosol cans for making foamed plastics and as refrigerants

    Three common CFCs:

    CFCl3, named as CFC 11, 1F and 3Cl replacing 4H in a CH4

    CF2Cl2, named as CFC 12, 2F and 2Cl replacing 4H in a CH4

    CF2ClCF2Cl, named as CFC 114, 4F and 2Cl replacing 6H in a CH3CH3,


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry5

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Chlorofluorocharbons (CFC) and fluorocarbons

    …CFCs are ideal as propellants widely used in aerosol cans for deodorants, hair spray, and food products

    …CFCs are very inert, so highly persistent in the environment

    …CFCs are bad for the “good ozone” in the atmosphere (discussed in more details later)


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry6

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Functional groups

    …Groups of atoms joined together as special units in organic compounds that cause them to have specific properties and functions are called functional groups

    …Usually, organic compounds are classified by their functional groups


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry7

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Functional groups

    Examples of functional groups:

    single C-to-C bond

    double C-to-C bond

    triple C-to-C bond

    chlorine substitutes

    fluorine substitutes

    many others to be learned later


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry8

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

  • Alkyl groups

    In many cases, a functional group is attached to a hydrocarbon stem called an alkyl group

    Examples of alkyl groups:

    CH3-, mthyl group, from CH4

    CH3CH2-, ethyl group, from CH3CH3

    For a short cut, alkyl group can be represented by a single letter, R, which means anyone of the alkyl groups; thus, an organic compound can be represented by

    R + functional group

    Examples:

    CH3Cl, RCl

    CH2Cl2, RCl2

    CH3CH2Cl, RCl


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry9

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are the organic compounds that have

(a) replacement of hydrogen by oxygen;

(b) replacement of hydrogen by nitrogen;

(c) replacement of hydrogen by chlorine;

(d) none of above is right.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry10

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which of the following is a chlorinated hydrocarbon

(a) HCl;

(b) Cl2;

(c) CH2Cl2;

(d) NaCl.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry11

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which is equivalent to CFC in organic chemistry

(a) Chlorinated fat carbons;

(b) Coal from coast;

(c) Chlorofluorocharbons;

(d) none of above.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry12

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which of the following is a CFC compound

(a) CaCl2;

(b) Cl-Cl;

(c) CFCl3;

(d) AlCl3.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry13

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which of the following is a functional groups

(a) CH3-;

(b) -Cl;

(c) -H;

(d) AlCl3.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry14

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which of the following is a functional groups in organic chemistry

(a) CH4;

(b) H2O;

(c) C=C;

(d) HCl.


Chapter 9 l4 organic chemistry15

Chapter 9. (L4)-Organic Chemistry

Quiz Time

Which of the following is an alkyl group in organic chemistry

(a) CH4;

(b) H2O;

(c) C=C;

(d) –CH2CH3.


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