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Hydrogen Fuel for Transportation. Deena Patel and Abigail Mechtenberg. Introductory Questions. What is the most abundant element in universe? Hydrogen What percentage of the atoms are hydrogen? 90 % Where is hydrogen found on Earth? H 2 0 and Hydrocarbons (i.e. fossil fuels)

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hydrogen fuel for transportation

Hydrogen Fuel for Transportation

Deena Patel and Abigail Mechtenberg

introductory questions
Introductory Questions
  • What is the most abundant element in universe?
    • Hydrogen
  • What percentage of the atoms are hydrogen?
    • 90 %
  • Where is hydrogen found on Earth?
    • H20 and Hydrocarbons (i.e. fossil fuels)
  • Is hydrogen a source or carrier on Earth
    • Carrier
  • Where is hydrogen found as a source (not bound to other atoms?
    • Sun
world has transformed dramatically in one life time say in the last 80 years
World has transformed dramatically in one life time – say in the last 80 years.

1917

Shop

1881 UM Engineering

Today’s UM Engineering

1942 Engineering Class

world has transformed dramatically in one life time say in the last 80 years1
World has transformed dramatically in one life time – say in the last 80 years.

1913 Model-T

2003 cars with navigation systems

world has transformed dramatically in one life time say in the last 80 years2
World has transformed dramatically in one life time – say in the last 80 years.

1948 IBM Computer

Today’s IBM Computer

Today’s UM Computer Lab

president bush launches the hydrogen fuel initiative
President Bush Launchesthe Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

"Tonight I am proposing $1.2 billion in research funding so that America can lead the world in developing clean, hydrogen-powered automobiles.

"With a new national commitment, our scientists and engineers will overcome obstacles to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could be powered by hydrogen, and pollution-free.

"Join me in this important innovation to make our air significantly cleaner, and our country much less dependent on foreign sources of energy."

President George W. Bush

2003 State of the Union Address

January 28, 2003

slide9

Transportation Petroleum Use by Mode (1970-2025) 2003 Total = 13.42 mbpd

Note: Domestic production includes crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, refinery gain, and other inputs. This is consistent with EIA, MER, Table 3.2. Previous versions of this chart included crude oil and natural gas plant liquids only.

Source: Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24, ORNL-6973, and EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2005, Preliminary release, December 2004.

approaches to reducing the oil gap
Approaches to Reducing the Oil Gap
  • Produce More Domestic Oil
  • Use Less
    • Improve Efficiency (hybrid techology)
    • Use Alternative Fuels (hydrogen, biofuel)
    • Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) - Policy
doe partners with industry
DOE Partners with Industry
  • FreedomCAR focuses on fuel cell vehicle and hybrid component technologies
  • Hydrogen Fuel Initiative focuses on hydrogen production, storage, delivery and infrastructure technologies

The Goal: Fuel Cell Vehicles in the Showroom and Hydrogen at Fueling Stations by 2020

hydrogen pathway
Hydrogen Pathway

Transportation

.

Hydro

Wind

Solar

Geothermal

Nuclear

Biomass

Distributed Generation

Oil

Coal

With Carbon Sequestration

Note: Nuclear Power Plant does not need carbon sequestration

NaturalGas

hydrogen fuel cell vehicle hfcv
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle: HFCV

Accessories

2

Fuel 50

Transmission

Losses = 6

Efficiency FC:

Losses = 26

Power to Wheels

16

fuel economy predictions
Fuel Economy Predictions

Assuming PEMs are more efficient

inside a fuel cell
Inside a Fuel Cell
  • The red Hs represent hydrogen molecules (H2) from a hydrogen storage tank.
  • The orange H+ represents a hydrogen ion after its electron is removed.
  • The yellow e- represents an electron moving through a circuit to do work (like lighting a light bulb or powering a car).
  • The green Os represent an oxygen molecule (O2) from the air.
  • The blue drops at the end are for pure water--the only byproduct of hydrogen power.

2H2 +O2 2H2O + electrical energy

proton exchange membrane pem
Proton Exchange Membrane: PEM
  • The proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell uses a fluorocarbon ion exchange with a polymeric membrane as the electrolyte.
  • The PEM cell appears to be more adaptable to automobile use than the other types of cells. These cells operate at relatively low temperatures and can vary their output to meet shifting power demands.
  • Efficiency is about 40 to 50 percent with outputs generally ranging from 50 to 250 kW
fuel cell demonstration vehicles
Fuel Cell Demonstration Vehicles

4-5 passengers

80-90 mph speed

180-250 miles range

fuel cell system
Fuel Cell System
  • Fuel Cell
  • Fuel Processor (if present)
  • Fuel Storage
  • Fuel Infrastructure
possible system configurations

Compressed

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Solid

Hydride

Hydrogen

H2-FC

Methanol

Tank

Methanol

Reformer

Gasoline

Tank

Gasoline

Reformer

Methanol

Tank

Methanol

Possible System Configurations

Methanol

Gasoline

Direct

Methanol

FC

weight of sub systems

Compressed

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Solid

Hydride

Hydrogen

H2-FC

Methanol

Tank

Methanol

Reformer

Gasoline

Tank

Gasoline

Reformer

Methanol

Tank

Methanol

Weight of Sub-Systems

85 kg

100 kg

90 kg

100 kg

52 kg

Methanol

80 kg

50 kg

Gasoline

Direct

Methanol

FC

how large of a gas tank do you want
How large of a gas tank do you want?

Volume Comparisons for 4 kg Vehicular H2 Storage

Schlapbach & Züttel, Nature, 15 Nov. 2001

volumetric energy density vs mass energy density
Volumetric Energy Density vsMass Energy Density

Minimum Performance Goal

Ultimate Goal

hydrogen safety
Hydrogen Safety

Vehicle with

hydrogen tank

Vehicle with gasoline tank

  • Hydrogen Flame
    • Cannot be seen
    • Temperature
    • Flame goes up

Photo 2 - Time 0 min, 3 seconds - Ignition of both fuels occur.

Hydrogen flow rate 2100 SCFM.

Gasoline flow rate 680 cc/min.

Photo 3 - Time: 1 min, 0 sec - Hydrogen flow is subsiding,

gasoline vehicle engulfed in fire

From: M.R. Swain, Fuel Leak Simulation, University of Miami,

varied views on timing
Varied Views on Timing
  • “Fuel-cell cars, in contrast [to hybrids], are expected on about the same schedule as NASA’s manned trip to Mars and have about the same level of likelihood.”

Scientific American

May 2004

perspectives to consider
Perspectives to Consider
  • Even “in the advanced technology case with a carbon constraint … hydrogen doesn’t penetrate the transportation sector in a major way until after 2035.” Jae Edmonds et al.,

PNNL, 2/04

  • Before then, H2 cars likely to increase GHGs.
    • Zero-CO2 H2 cars avoid CO2 at cost of $700/ton!

E.C. Joint Research Center & EUCAR, 1/04

back to original goals
Back to Original Goals

In the meantime, we can reduce the oil gap by:

  • Fuel Efficient Vehicles
  • Alternative Fuel Use
  • Reduce VMT (Vehicle Miles Traveled)

If we choose to use hydrogen in transportation, thenwe have to ask where is the hydrogen coming from

current worldwide hydrogen uses
Current Worldwide Hydrogen Uses

42 million tons (US 9 million tons)

Source: NRC Hydrogen Economy (2004)

where does h 2 come from
Where does H2 come from?
  • Most H on earth is bound to other atoms
    • Water: H20
    • Fossil Fuels: hydro-carbon chains
    • Organic matter: biomass
  • Need to input energy to break these bonds in order to isolate the hydrogen.
  • Energy carrier like electricity.
h 2 from h 2 o
H2 from H2O
  • Electrolysis
    • Running an electric current through water produces hydrogen and oxygen (reverse of fuel cell).
    • Dates back to 1800’s
    • Produces high purity H2
    • Can use any fuel to generate electricity
      • Fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, wind
  • Other ways of splitting water:
    • Photolysis, biological, thermo-chemical
h 2 from fossil fuels
H2 from fossil fuels
  • Fossil fuels, like oil, are made up of hydrogen and carbon chains.
h 2 from fossil fuels natural gas
H2 from fossil fuels – natural gas
  • Steam reforming of natural gas:

CH4 +H2O (1100° C) CO + 3H2

  • Need to purify: CO can poison catalysts

Water gas shift reaction:

CO +H2O  CO2 + H2

h 2 from fossil fuels coal coke biomass
H2 from fossil fuels – coal, coke, biomass
  • Gasification to synthetic gas (syn. gas)

C +H2O (1000° C) CO + H2

Followed by water gas shift reaction

CO +H2O  CO2 + H2

    • CO2 can be vented or captured (carbon capture).
current world hydrogen production
Current World Hydrogen Production

Current US production: 9 million tons.

By 2040 fuel cell cars and light trucks

will require 150 million tons of hydrogen

(DOE estimate)

Source: DOE (2003)

peak oil production
Peak Oil Production

Source: P. Weisz Phys. Today July 2004

natural gas supplies
Natural Gas Supplies

Source: P. Weisz Phys. Today July 2004

coal supplies
Coal Supplies

Source: P. Weisz Phys. Today July 2004

carbon capture
Carbon Capture
  • If fossil fuels are used to generate hydrogen, green house gasses (primarily CO2) can be captured at the production site.
  • Underground storage: geologic formations such as depleted gas and oil reservoirs.
    • Done in Norway since 1996: 1 million metric tons of CO2 per year.
  • Economical for large centralized sites
carbon capture potential
Carbon Capture Potential

Current US CO2 emissions: 6 billion metric tons

delivered h 2 cost kg
Delivered H2 Cost ($/kg)

$2.50/gallonof gasoline

Source: LIpman (2004)

ghg emissions hydrogen fuel cell
GHG Emissions - Hydrogen Fuel Cell

Nuclear

Natural Gas

Reforming

Solar

Biomass

Electrol-

ysis

Source: LIpman (2004)

major air pollutants hydrogen fc
Major Air Pollutants – Hydrogen FC

Nuclear

Natural Gas

Reforming

Solar

Biomass

Electrol.

Source: LIpman (2004)

summary
Summary
  • Hydrogen is abundant worldwide, but not in an isolated form (H2).
  • Fuel cells convert H2 to electricity.
  • Currently, Hybrids-GHEV get better efficiencies than Conventional Vehicles-GCV, but Hydrogen-FCV offer higher efficiencies (HEV could run on H2)
  • H2 can be produced from renewable or nonrenewable sources
    • Long term goals should include moving towards renewable sources.
    • Carbon capture to reduce greenhouse pollution from fossil fuel sources.
references further reading
References/Further Reading
  • National Research Counsel: Hydrogen Economy 2004.
  • APS Revised Hydrogen Report, October 2004
  • G. Crabtree et al. The Hydrogen Economy, Physics Today, December 2004.
  • P. Weisz, Basic Choices and Constraints on Long-Term Energy Supplies, Physics Today, July 2004.
  • T. Lipman, What Will Power the Hydrogen Economy? Present and Future Sources of Hydrogen Energy.
thank you

Thank you.

Abigail Mechtenberg and Deena Patel

current cost estimate
Current Cost Estimate

Gasoline Fuel Cost

Hydrogen Fuel Cost

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