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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Imperial Vision Section 2: The Spanish-American War Section 3: New American Diplomacy Visual Summary. Chapter Menu. How Are Empires Built?

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chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:The Imperial Vision

Section 2:The Spanish-American War

Section 3:New American Diplomacy

Visual Summary

Chapter Menu
chapter intro

How Are Empires Built?

  • International economic and military competition convinced the United States it must become a world power. In the late 1800s, the United States increased its trade and military presence in East Asia and Latin America, and by the early 1900s, it had created an American empire.
  • Why do you think the United States focused on East Asia and Latin America?
  • What factors make a nation a world power?
Chapter Intro
chapter intro 1

The Imperial Vision

Why did the United States seek to become an imperialist power?

Chapter Intro 1
chapter intro 2

The Spanish-American War

Was sympathy for the Cuban people or economic expansion the major reason why the United States declared war on Spain?

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 3

New American Diplomacy

Why did the United States use diplomacy to achieve its economic objectives in Asia?

Chapter Intro 3
section 1 main idea

Big Ideas

Economics and SocietyIn the late 1800s, many Americans wanted the United States to expand its military and economic power overseas.

Section 1-Main Idea
section 1 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • imperialism
  • protectorate

Academic Vocabulary

  • expansion
  • conference
Section 1-Key Terms
section 1 key terms1

People and Events to Identify

  • Anglo-Saxonism
  • Matthew C. Perry
  • Queen Liliuokalani
  • Pan-Americanism
Section 1-Key Terms
section 1 polling question


Do you agree that strong nations should take advantage of weaker nations?

A. Agree

B. Disagree

Section 1-Polling Question
section 1

Building Support for Imperialism

A desire for world markets and belief in the superiority of Anglo-Saxon culture led the United States to assert itself as a world power.

Section 1
section 11

Building Support for Imperialism (cont.)

  • Beginning in the 1880s, economic and military competition from other nations, as well as a growing feeling of cultural superiority, convinced many Americans that the United States should become a world power.
  • Several European nations were already expanding overseas, a development known as the New Imperialism.
Section 1
section 12

Building Support for Imperialism (cont.)

  • Europeans expanded their power overseas for many reasons:
  • Factories depended on raw materials from all over the world.
  • By the late 1800s, most industrialized countries had placed high tariffs against each other.
  • The growth of investment opportunities in Western Europe had slowed.
Section 1
section 13

Building Support for Imperialism (cont.)

  • To protect their investments, European nations began exerting control over those territories.
  • Some areas became colonies, while others became protectorates.
  • The U.S. noticed the expansion of European powers overseas and concluded that the nation needed new overseas markets to keep its economy strong.

Exports and Imports, 1865–1900

Section 1
section 14

Building Support for Imperialism (cont.)

  • In addition to economic concerns, many supporters of Social Darwinism argued that nations competed with each other politically, economically, and militarily, and that only the strongest would survive.
  • John Fiske’s ideas, known as Anglo-Saxonism, were linked to the idea of Manifest Destiny.
Section 1
section 15

Building Support for Imperialism (cont.)

  • As Americans became increasingly willing to risk war to defend American interests overseas, support for building a large modern navy began to grow.
  • Captain Alfred T. Mahan published his lectures in a book called The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660–1783, which helped build public support for a big navy.
Section 1
section 16




Josiah Strong linked Anglo-Saxonism to which idea in order to gain the support of Americans?

A.Manifest Destiny


C.Missionary work


Section 1
section 17

American Expansion in the Pacific

The desire for new markets led to trade with Japan and the annexation of Hawaii.

Section 1
section 18

American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.)

  • In 1852, after receiving several petitions from Congress, President Millard Fillmore decided to force Japan to trade with the United States.
  • He ordered Commodore Matthew C. Perry to take a naval expedition to Japan to negotiate a trade treaty.
Section 1
section 19

American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.)

  • Realizing that they could not resist modern Western technology and weapons, the Japanese agreed to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa.
  • By the 1890s, the Japanese had a powerful navy and had begun building their own empire in Asia.
Section 1
section 110

American Expansion in the Pacific (cont.)

  • Queen Liliuokalani disliked the influence that American settlers had gained in Hawaii, so she tried to impose a new constitution reasserting her authority.
  • A group of planters, supported by the U.S. marines, overthrew her monarchy and in 1891, she reluctantly stepped down.
  • President Cleveland strongly opposed imperialism, so the United States annexed Hawaii once he was out of office.
Section 1
section 111




After the recession struck Hawaii in 1872, the U.S. signed a treaty exempting Hawaii from tariffs on which product?





Section 1
section 112

Diplomacy in Latin America

The United States worked to increase trade with Latin America.

Section 1
section 113

Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.)

  • American business leaders and government officials wanted to increase the sale of American products in Latin America.
  • James G. Blaine proposed that the United States invite the Latin American nations to a conference to discuss ways in which the American nations could work together to support peace and increase trade.
  • This idea became known as Pan-Americanism.
Section 1
section 114

Diplomacy in Latin America (cont.)

  • Although the Latin American delegates rejected Blaine’s ideas, they did create an organization that worked to promote cooperation among the nations of the Western Hemisphere—the Commercial Bureau of the American Republic.
  • Today this organization is called the Organization of American States (OAS).
Section 1
section 115





Which of the following goals did James G. Blaine wish to accomplish at the conference?

A.Creation of a customs union

B.Creation of a system to work out disputes peacefully

C.Creation of a treaty that limited European trade

D.A and B

E. B and C

Section 1
section 2 main idea

Big Ideas

Trade, War, and MigrationThe United States defeated Spain in a war, acquired new overseas territories, and became an imperial power.

Section 2-Main Idea
section 2 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • yellow journalism
  • autonomy
  • jingoism

Academic Vocabulary

  • intervene
  • volunteer
Section 2-Key Terms
section 2 key terms1

People and Events to Identify

  • José Martí
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • Joseph Pulitzer
  • Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Platt Amendment
  • Foraker Act
Section 2-Key Terms
section 2 polling question


Do you think that the United States should grant Puerto Rico their independence?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 2-Polling Question
section 2

The Coming of War

In support of the Cuban rebellion and in retaliation for the loss of the USS Maine, the United States declared war on Spain.

Section 2
section 21

The Coming of War (cont.)

  • In 1868, Cuban rebels declared independence and launched a guerrilla war against Spanish authorities.
  • The rebellion collapsed a decade later, and many Cuban rebels fled to the U.S.
  • One of the exiled leaders, José Martí, launched a rebellion in February 1895.
  • Marti died, but the Republic of Cuba was established in September 1895.

U.S. Investment in Cuba, 1897

Section 2
section 22

The Coming of War (cont.)

  • Many Americans supported the rebels because of the sensational stories published in The Journal, owned by William Randolph Hearst, and The World, owned byJoseph Pulitzer.
  • This kind of writing came to be known as yellow journalism.
Section 2
section 23

The Coming of War (cont.)

  • President William McKinley made it clear that if the war did not end soon, the United States would have to intervene.
  • Spain removed General Valeriano Weyler from power and offered the Cubans autonomy, but only if Cuba remained part of the Spanish empire.
  • The Cubans refused to negotiate.

The Spanish-American War

Section 2
section 24

The Coming of War (cont.)

  • On the evening of February 15, 1898, while the Maine sat in Havana Harbor, it exploded.
  • No one is sure why this happened, but Americans believed the Spanish did it.
  • Within the Republican Party, jingoism was very strong, so the president faced pressure to go to war.

The Battle for the Philippines

Section 2
section 25

The Coming of War (cont.)

  • On April 11, 1898, McKinley asked Congress to authorize the use of force.
  • On April 19, Congress proclaimed Cuba independent, demanded that Spain withdraw from the island, and authorized the use of force.
  • In response to the demands of the United States, Spain declared war.
Section 2
section 26




The United States had not been at war with another nation in how many years?





Section 2
section 27

A War on Two Fronts

The United States fought and defeated Spain in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Section 2
section 28

A War on Two Fronts (cont.)

  • Commodore George Dewey was ordered to attack the Spanish fleet based in the Philippines.
  • His quick victory took McKinley and his advisers by surprise.
  • While waiting for the American troops to arrive, Dewey contacted Emilio Aguinaldo—a Filipino revolutionary.
Section 2
section 29

A War on Two Fronts (cont.)

  • While the rebels took control of most of the islands, American troops seized the Philippine capital of Manila.
  • Neither the Spanish nor Americans were prepared for war in Cuba.
  • American military planners wanted to drive the Spanish fleet out of Santiago Harbor and into battle with the American fleet waiting nearby.
Section 2
section 210

A War on Two Fronts (cont.)

  • While one group of soldiers attacked San Juan Hill, the Rough Riders, led by Theodore Roosevelt and accompanied by the all-black 9th and 10th Cavalry Regiments, attacked Kettle Hill.
  • The plan worked, and the United States took control of Santiago and Puerto Rico.
Section 2
section 211




Which percentage of the American troops fighting in Cuba were African American?





Section 2
section 212

An American Empire

In defeating Spain, the United States acquired an overseas empire.

Section 2
section 213

An American Empire (cont.)

  • When deciding whether or not to annex the Philippines, the United States faced a difficult choice—remain true to its republican ideals or become an imperial power that ruled a foreign country without the consent of its people.
  • President McKinley ultimately decided to annex the islands.
  • On December 10, 1898, the U.S. and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris.
Section 2
section 214

An American Empire (cont.)

  • Although the United States had promised to grant Cuba its independence, President McKinley added the Platt Amendment to their Constitution.
  • This amendment made Cuba an American protectorate, and remained in effect until 1934.
Section 2
section 215

An American Empire (cont.)

  • In 1900, Congress passed the Foraker Act, establishing a civil government in Puerto Rico.
  • The debate over Puerto Rico’s status continues today.
Section 2
section 216

An American Empire (cont.)

  • The Philippine-American war, or Philippine Insurrection, lasted for more than three years.
  • To fight the guerrillas, the U.S. military adopted many of the same policies that America had condemned Spain for using in Cuba.
  • The first U.S. civilian governor of the islands, William Howard Taft, slowly reduced Filipino hostility through his reforms.
Section 2
section 217

An American Empire (cont.)

  • On July 4, 1902, the United States declared the war over.
  • By the mid-1930s, Filipinos were permitted to elect their own congress and president.
  • Finally, in 1946, the United States granted independence to the Philippines.
Section 2
section 218




The following happened under the Treaty of Paris EXCEPT

A.Cuba became an independent nation.

B.The United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam.

C.The United States paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines.

D.The United States decided a senator would govern the Philippines.

Section 2
section 3 main idea

Big Ideas

Trade, War, and MigrationUnder President Theodore Roosevelt, the United States increased its power on the world stage.

Section 3-Main Idea
section 3 key terms

Content Vocabulary

  • sphere of influence
  • Open Door policy
  • dollar diplomacy
  • guerrilla

Academic Vocabulary

  • access
  • tension
Section 3-Key Terms
section 3 key terms1

People and Events to Identify

  • Boxer Rebellion
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
  • Roosevelt Corollary
  • Victoriana Huerta
  • Pancho Villa
Section 3-Key Terms
section 3 polling question


Do you feel that the United States should intervene in foreign affairs?

A. Yes

B. No

Section 3-Polling Question
section 3

American Diplomacy in Asia

The United States pursued an Open Door policy to allow all nations access to China’s markets.

Section 3
section 31

American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.)

  • In 1894, Japan easily defeated China in a war over Korea.
  • China gave Japan territory in Manchuria.
  • Then, in 1898, Russia demanded that China lease the Manchurian territory to Russia.
  • Soon other countries also demanded “leaseholds” in China; each leasehold became the center of a country’s sphere of influence.
Section 3
section 32

American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.)

  • Politicians and businessmen in the United States supported what they called an Open Door policy.
  • Secretary of State John Hay received assurances from all of the nations with leaseholds that they would accept the Open Door policy if all the others agreed to do so as well.

The Open Door Policy and the Boxer Rebellion

Section 3
section 33

American Diplomacy in Asia (cont.)

  • During the Boxer Rebellionin 1900, the Boxers, supported by some Chinese troops, besieged foreign embassies in Beijing and Tianjin, killing more than 200 foreigners and taking others prisoner.
  • Eight nations intervened, landing in China to rescue the foreigners and smash the rebellion.
  • Hay worked with British diplomats to persuade the other powers not to partition China.
Section 3
section 34





Why did Hay work to convince the other countries not to partition China?

A.To retain access to China’s lucrative trade in tea, spices, and silk

B.To maintain a larger market for its own goods

C.To avoid further war with China

D. A and B

E.B and C

Section 3
section 35

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy

Presidents Roosevelt and Taft continued to support a policy of expanding Unites States influence in foreign countries.

Section 3
section 36

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy (cont.)

  • After President McKinley was assassinated, Theodore Roosevelt took over the presidency.
  • He favored increasing American power on the world stage.
  • For his efforts in ending the war between Japan and Russia, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906.

Great White Fleet

Section 3
section 37

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy (cont.)

  • Roosevelt believed in a strong global military presence.
  • One of the most dramatic acts of his presidency was the acquisition and construction of the Panama Canal.
  • In 1901 the United States and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, which gave the United States the exclusive right to build any proposed canal through Central America.
Section 3
section 38

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy (cont.)

  • On November 3, 1903, Philippe Bunau-Varilla’s forces revolted against Columbia.
  • Within a few days, the United States recognized Panama’s independence, and the two nations signed a treaty allowing the canal to be built.
  • To address the problem of European powers exploiting Latin American debt, Roosevelt gave an address to Congress known as the Roosevelt Corollary.
Section 3
section 39

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy (cont.)

  • Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, believed that if American business leaders supported Latin America development, everyone would benefit.
  • Taft’s policy came to be called dollar diplomacy.

The Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy, 1903–1934

Section 3
section 310

Roosevelt’s Diplomacy (cont.)

  • Administration officials also worked hard to replace European loans with loans from American banks in order to avoid European intervention in Latin America.

The Roosevelt Corollary and Dollar Diplomacy, 1903–1934

Section 3
section 311




Who expressed his political beliefs with the saying, “Speak softly and carry a big stick”?

A.William McKinley

B.William Howard Taft

C.Theodore Roosevelt

D.John Hay

Section 3
section 312

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico

Wilson believed in “moral diplomacy” and tried to encourage democracy in Latin America.

Section 3
section 313

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico(cont.)

  • In 1911, widespread discontent in Mexico erupted into revolution.
  • Francisco Madero, a reformer who appeared to support democracy, constitutional government, and land reform, led the revolution.
  • In February 1913, General Victoriano Huerta murdered Madero and seized power.
Section 3
section 314

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico(cont.)

  • Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize the new government.
  • In April 1914, American sailors visiting the city of Tampico were arrested after entering a restricted area.
  • Although they were released, Wilson saw Mexico’s refusal to apologize as an opportunity to overthrow Huerta.
Section 3
section 315

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico(cont.)

  • Venustiano Carranza became Mexico’s president, but Mexican forces were not appeased.
  • In March 1916, Pancho Villa and a group of guerrillas burned the town of Columbus, New Mexico, and killed 16 Americans.
  • Wilson sent 6,000 troops under General John J. Pershing to capture Villa, but later recalled them.
Section 3
section 316

Woodrow Wilson’s Diplomacy in Mexico(cont.)

  • During Wilson’s presidency, his hope of leading the world by moral example was not realized.
Section 3
section 317




Wilson was hoping not to deal with which issue while in office?

A.Foreign affairs

B.Domestic policy

C.The economy


Section 3

Causes of American Imperialism

  • The United States wanted new markets for its products, particularly its manufactured goods.
  • Many Americans believed it was the destiny of the United States to spread its power and civilization to other parts of the world.
  • American leaders believed that having a powerful navy and controlling trade were key to being a world power.
VS 1

Effects of the Spanish-American War

  • Cuba officially became an independent nation, although the United States claimed control over its foreign relations and exerted influence over internal politics.
  • The United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
  • Americans debated the morality and wisdom of becoming an imperial nation.
  • The United States fought a three-year war to secure control over the Philippines.
VS 2

The United States Acts As a World Power

  • The United States used diplomatic means to establish the Open Door policy in China.
  • President Theodore Roosevelt negotiated a peace agreement between Russia and Japan.
  • The United States completed construction of the Panama Canal.
  • The United States intervened; with the intent to provide stability, in the affairs of several Caribbean nations.
  • The United States twice intervened in the lengthy Mexican Revolution.
VS 3
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the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation



a country that is technically independent but is actually under the control of another country



the act or process of increasing or enlarging the extent, number, volume, or scope



a meeting of two or more persons for discussing matters of common concern


yellow journalism 

type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers



the quality or state of being self-governing



extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy



to get involved in the affairs of another



one who offers service willingly


sphere of influence 

section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers


Open Door policy 

a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations’ spheres of influence


dollar diplomacy 

a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad



member of an armed band that carries out surprise attacks and sabotage rather than open warfare



freedom or ability to obtain or make use of



act of stretching; stiffness; mental strain


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