Chapter 10 motivation and emotion
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Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion. Motivational Theories and Concepts. Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behavior Drive theories – seeking homeostasis Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success.

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Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion

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Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Chapter 10: Motivation and Emotion


Motivational theories and concepts

Motivational Theories and Concepts

  • Motives – needs, wants, desires leading to goal-directed behavior

  • Drive theories – seeking homeostasis

  • Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli

  • Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.2 The diversity of human motives


The motivation of hunger and eating biological factors

The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Biological Factors

  • Brain regulation

    • Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus

    • Paraventricular nucleus

  • Glucose and digestive regulation

    • Glucostatic theory

  • Hormonal regulation

    • Insulin and leptin


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.3 The hypothalamus


The motivation of hunger and eating environmental factors

The Motivation of Hunger and Eating: Environmental Factors

  • Learned preferences and habits

    • Exposure

    • When, as well as what

  • Food-related cues

    • Appearance, odor, effort required

  • Stress

    • Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating


Eating and weight the roots of obesity

Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity

  • Evolutionary explanations

  • Genetic predisposition

    • Body Mass Index and adoption study

  • The concept of set point/settling point

  • Dietary restraint


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.5 The heritability of weight


Sexual motivation and behavior determining desire

Sexual Motivation and Behavior: Determining Desire

  • Hormonal regulation

    • Estrogens

    • Androgens

    • Testosterone

  • Pheromones

    • Synchronized menstrual cycles

  • Aphrodisiacs

  • Erotic materials

  • Attraction to a Partner

  • The Coolidge effect

  • Evolutionary factors


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.6 Rape victim-offender relationships


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.7 Parental investment theory and mating preferences


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.8 The gender gap in how much people think about sex


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.10 Gender and potential mates’ financial prospects


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.11 Gender and potential mates’ physical attractiveness


The mystery of sexual orientation

The Mystery of Sexual Orientation

  • Heterosexual – Bisexual – Homosexual

    • A continuum

  • Theories explaining homosexuality

    • Environmental

    • Biological

    • Interactionist


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.12 Homosexuality and heterosexuality as endpoints on a continuum


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.13 How common is homosexuality?


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.14 Genetics and sexual orientation


The human sexual response

The Human Sexual Response

  • Masters and Johnson – 1966

  • Stages:

    • Excitement

    • Plateau

    • Orgasm

    • Resolution


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.15 The human sexual response cycle


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.16 The gender gap in orgasm consistency


Achievement motivation

Achievement Motivation

  • Achievement motive = need to excel

    • Work harder and more persistently

    • Delay gratification

    • Pursue competitive careers

    • Situational influences on achievement motives

    • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)


The elements of emotional experience

The Elements of Emotional Experience

  • Cognitive component

    • Subjective conscious experience

    • Positive psychology

  • Physiological component

    • Bodily (autonomic) arousal

  • Behavioral component

    • Characteristic overt expressions


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.20 The amygdala and fear


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.22 Cross-cultural comparisons of people’s ability to recognize emotions from facial expressions


Theories of emotion

Theories of Emotion

  • James-Lange

    • Feel afraid because pulse is racing

  • Cannon-Bard

    • Thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and the autonomic nervous system

  • Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory

    • Look to external cues to decide what to feel

  • Evolutionary Theories

    • Innate reactions with little cognitive interpretation


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.23 Theories of emotion


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.24 Primary emotions


Happiness

Happiness

  • Common sense notions incorrect

    • Income, age, parenthood, intelligence, and attractiveness largely uncorrelated

    • Physical health, good social relationships, religious faith, and culture modestly correlated

    • Love, marriage, work satisfaction, and personality strongly correlated

  • Subjective rather than objective reality important


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.27 The subjective well-being of nations


Chapter 10 motivation and emotion

Figure 10.29 Possible causal relations among the correlates of happiness


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