Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century
Download
1 / 25

Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on

Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century. Bethany Alden Rivers, The University of Northampton John T. E. Richardson, The Open University. HEA Seminar Series 30 April 2014.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century' - jesse


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Unearthing learners’ conceptions of reflection to innovate business education for the 21st century

Bethany Alden Rivers, The University of Northampton

John T. E. Richardson, The Open University

HEA Seminar Series

30 April 2014


Developing capacities for critical reflection is a key learning outcome for 21st century business education.

  • Supports professional judgement and ethical understanding (Lucas & Tan, 2013).

  • Promotes stronger thinkers who have a greater ability to deal with ill-structured problems (cf. Kuhn, 1991).

  • Overlaps with problem-solving and decision making skills (Jackson, 2009).

  • Contributes to an ideal set of employee attributes (Andrews & Higson, 2008).


Heis should consider taking a second order perspective when designing business curriculum
HEIs should consider taking a second-order perspective when designing business curriculum.

Responsive to the needs of students and of employers.

Takes into account students’ own beliefs about reflection.

Is more relevant and meaningful to the students’ own lifelong learning.


But each of us orientates to reflection in different ways
But…each of us orientates to reflection in different ways. designing business curriculum.

  • Frameworks for understanding the role of reflection in learning do not represent the processes or motivations of all learners and that educators ‘should not try to force one pattern and model upon them all’ (Dewey, 1910, p. 143).

  • Seven levels of reflectivity and reflective/non-reflective action (Mezirow, 1981, 1991)

  • Different levels of competency will suggest different orientations to reflection (Butler, 1996).


Our orientation to reflection is influenced by our underlying beliefs about reflection
Our orientation to reflection is influenced by our underlying beliefs about reflection.

  • Marton and Säljö (1976) suggested that individuals already have a ‘normal conception of learning’ that influences their approach to a task.

  • Säljö(1979) interviewed 90 participants ranging in age from 15 to 73 years of age and in level of formal education from 6 years to 17 years. He discovered five different conceptions of learning:

  • as an increase in knowledge,

  • as memorising,

  • as acquiring facts that can be used,

  • as the abstraction of meaning and

  • as interpreting and understanding reality.


Research questions
Research Questions underlying beliefs about reflection.

  • How do business students orientate to reflection?

  • How do business students conceptualise reflection?

  • What are the relationships between their orientations to and their conceptions of reflection?

  • How can these analytics help us to design a more meaningful business studies curriculum?


Building a research instrument to measure orientations to and conceptions of reflection
Building a research instrument to measure orientations to and conceptions of reflection

  • Kember et al.’s (2000) Questionnaire of Reflective Thinking (QRT)

    +

  • Alden’s (2011) Questionnaire for Conceptions of Reflection (CoR)


Part 1 the qrt kember et al 2000
Part 1: The QRT ( and conceptions of reflectionKember et al., 2000)

Measures orientations to reflection along a spectrum of

non-reflection to reflection action (based on Mezirow, 1991).

Non-Reflective

Reflective

Habitual Action

Understanding

Reflection

Critical Reflection


Examples of qrt questions
Examples of QRT ‘questions’ and conceptions of reflection

Habitual Action

In this course we do things so many times that I started doing them without thinking about it.

Understanding

To pass this course you need to understand the content.

Reflection

I like to think over what I have been doing and consider alternative ways of doing it.

Critical Reflection

This course has challenged some of my firmly held ideas.


Part 2 the cor alden 2011
Part 2: The and conceptions of reflectionCoR (Alden, 2011)

Measures conceptions of reflection using a phenomenographic approach: identifying categories of description within an outcome space.

Example questions:

When do you find reflection easy/difficult?

Why are some students more reflective than others?

What does reflection mean to you?



Dat a collection
Dat and conceptions of reflectiona collection

  • Approximately 500 paper-based questionnaires were distributed to Northampton Business School students in October 2013.

  • Completed questionnaires were returned by 112 students (22% response).

  • Module tutors volunteered to distribute and collect the questionnaires.


Participants
Participants and conceptions of reflection

  • 49% Female; 51% Male

  • 35% 1st year, 4% 2nd year, 63% 3rd year

  • Age range: 18-49 years

  • Median age: 20

  • Employment status:

    • Full time: 4%

    • Part time: 47%

    • Volunteering: 5%

    • Unemployed with experience: 41%

    • Unemployed no experience: 4%


Research findings

Question 1: How do business and conceptions of reflection students orientate to reflection?

Research Findings

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

  • A chi-squared test showed a significant disparity between the model and the data, ² = 133.02, df = 98, p = 0.01, which is unsurprising given the large sample size.

  • The ²/df ratio was 1.36 and the RMSEA1was 0.06, which were both acceptable.

  • However, the comparative fit index was only 0.89, and the Goodness-of-fit index was 0.87, indicating only moderate fit.

    1Root mean square error of approximation


Research findings1

Question 1: How do business and conceptions of reflection students orientate to reflection?

Research Findings

Exploratory Factor Analysis

  • The parallel analysis of 1,000 random correlation matrices indicated that four factors should be extracted which explained 54.1% of the variance in the data.

  • Accordingly, principal axis factoring was used to extract four factors, and these were then submitted to oblique rotation.

  • The four factors corresponded to the four scales of the QRT, except that two of the ‘questions’ showed cross loadings on other factors.

  • These results suggest that the QRT is broadly adequate for its purpose but that it could be improved by removing two problematic questions.


Research findings2

Question 1: How do business and conceptions of reflection students orientate to reflection?

Research Findings

Results

  • Highest mean rankings for ‘Understanding’ (M = 4.16, SD = 0.63) and for ‘Reflection’ (M = 3.93, SD = 0.70).

Non-Reflective

Reflective

Habitual Action

Understanding

Reflection

Critical Reflection


Research findings3

Question 2: How do business and conceptions of reflection students conceptualise reflection?

Research Findings

3-stage phenomenographic approach using thematic inductive analysis

  • Scanning responses and identifying main points.

  • Several iterations of list-making and recategorising.

  • Mapping onto Alden’s (2011) framework.


Research findings4

Question 2: How do business and conceptions of reflection students conceptualise reflection?

Research Findings

Results

  • The participants did not hold the full range of conceptions as shown in the framework.

  • Of the cases, 17 sets were unclassifiable.

  • Conception 1 (reflection is a trait) and Conception 7 (reflection is transformation) were not identified in the present sample.

  • The remaining participants were distributed as follows:

    Conception 2, 11 (9.8%);

    Conception 3, 24 (21.4%);

    Conception 4, 50 (44.6%);

    Conception 5, 8 (7.1%);

    Conception 6, 2 (1.8%).


Research findings5

Question 2: How do business and conceptions of reflection students conceptualise reflection?

Research Findings


Research findings6

Question 3: Is there a relationship between business and conceptions of reflection students’ orientations to and conceptions of reflection?

Research Findings

Results

  • A multivariate analysis of variance found no sign of any significant difference among the five groups of students in their scale scores, F = 0.76, df = 16, 260, p = 0.73.

  • Univariateanalyses found no sign of any difference on the individual scales, F  1.36. df = 4, 88, p  0.25.

  • In short, there was no relationship between the students’ orientations to reflection on the QRT and their conceptions of reflection according to the phenomenographic analysis.


Research findings7

Question 3: Is there a relationship between business and conceptions of reflection students’ orientations to and conceptions of reflection?

Research Findings

Discussion

  • The two instruments (QRT and CoR) may not have been the best measures of ‘orientations’ and of ‘conceptions’ for the purposes of correlation.

  • Students at different levels of development may interpret questions differently (cf. Baxter Magolda, 1998)


Conclusions
Conclusions and conceptions of reflection

  • The QRT appeared to be a good fit for measuring students’ orientations to reflection.

  • Students hold mid-range orientations: ‘Understanding’ and ‘Reflection’.

  • The CoR was a good fit for measuring students’ conceptions of reflection along the seven possible conceptions.

  • Similarly, the findings from this part of the survey suggested that students hold mid-range conceptions of reflection: ‘reflection as self-evaluation’ and ‘reflection as a learning tool’.


What does it all mean for 21 st century business education
What does it all mean for 21 and conceptions of reflectionst century business education?

Question 4: How can these analytics help us to design a more meaningful business studies curriculum?

  • How can we enhance our pedagogy for employability by knowing more about students’ conceptions of reflection?

  • To what extent is it realistic to think that we can use data on students’ beliefs to inform our learning design?

  • How can we develop learners’ capacities for more sophisticated conceptions of reflection and reflective practice?


References
References and conceptions of reflection

  • Alden, B. (2011). Distance learners’ conceptions of reflection in higher education. Psychology of Education Review. 35(1), 3-7.

  • Andrews J. and Higson, H. (2008). Graduate employability, ‘soft skills’ versus ‘hard’ business knowledge: a European study. Higher Education in Europe, 33(4), 411-422.

  • Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1998) Learning and gender: complexity and possibility. Higher Education. 35, 351-355.

  • Butler, J. (1996). Professional development: practice as text, reflection as process, and self as locus. Australian Journal of Education. 40(3), 265-283.

  • Dewey, J. (1910). How We Think. Lexington: D. C. Heath.

  • Jackson, D. (2009). An international profile of industry-relevant competencies and skill gaps in modern graduates. International Journal of Management Education. 8(3), 29-58.

  • Kember, D., Leung, D. Y. P., Jones, A., Yuen Loke, A., McKay, J., Sinclair, K., Tse, H., Webb, C., KamYuet Wong, F., Wong, M. and Yeung, E. (2000). Development of a questionnaire to measure the level of reflective thinking. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. 25(4), 381-395.

  • Kuhn, D. (1991). The Skills of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Lucas, U. and Tan, P. L. (2013). Developing a capacity to engage in critical reflection: students’ ‘ways of knowing’ within an undergraduate business and accounting programme. Studies in Higher Education. 38(1), 104-123.

  • Marton, F. and Säljö, R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning—II: Outcome as a function of the learner’s conception of the task. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 46(2), 115-127.

  • Mezirow, J. (1981). A critical theory of adult learning and education. Adult Education. 32(1), 3-24.

  • Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  • O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers. 32(3), 396-402.

  • Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A scheme, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

  • Van Rossum, E. J., Deijkers, R. and Hamer, R. (1985). Students’ learning conceptions and their interpretation of significant educational concepts. Higher Education. 14(6), 617-641.


[email protected] and conceptions of reflection

[email protected]


ad