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Towards IPCC 2006 GLs - changes and improvements in the methodologies for the Waste Sector. EU Workshop on Waste 2-3 May 2006. Contents. 2006 IPCC Guidelines - Waste volume: Solid waste treatment and disposal solid waste disposal sites biological treatment

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towards ipcc 2006 gls changes and improvements in the methodologies for the waste sector

Towards IPCC 2006 GLs - changes and improvements in the methodologies for the Waste Sector

EU Workshop on Waste

2-3 May 2006

contents
Contents

2006 IPCC Guidelines - Waste volume:

  • Solid waste treatment and disposal
    • solid waste disposal sites
    • biological treatment
  • Wastewater treatment and discharge
  • Incineration and open burning of waste

This presentation:

    • changes and improvements to 1996 GLs and GPG 2000
solid waste treatment and disposal
Solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Recycling and reuse
  • biological treatment (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • mechanical-biological treatment (MB, MBT)
  • solid waste disposal (landfills)
  • incineration and open burning of waste
solid waste treatment and disposal1
Solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Recycling and reuse
  • biological treatment (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • mechanical-biological treatment (MB, MBT)
  • solid waste disposal (landfills)
  • incineration and open burning of waste

Included in the IPCC 1996 GLs

solid waste treatment and disposal2

Included in the IPCC 2006 GLs

Solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Recycling and reuse
  • biological treatment (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • mechanical-biological treatment (MB, MBT)
  • solid waste disposal (landfills)
  • incineration and open burning of waste
solid waste treatment and disposal3

Included in the IPCC 2006 GLs

Solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Recycling and reuse
  • biological treatment (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • mechanical-biological treatment (MB, MBT)
  • solid waste disposal (landfills)
  • incineration and open burning of waste

Separate chapter

solid waste treatment and disposal4
Solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Recycling and reuse
  • biological treatment (composting, anaerobic digestion)
  • mechanical-biological treatment (MB, MBT)
  • solid waste disposal (landfills)
  • incineration and open burning of waste

Options and combinations many - challenges in developing default methodologies and default factors

data collection for solid waste treatment and disposal
Data Collection for solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Waste generation, management and disposal by region/country
    • Municipal solid waste, industrial
    • amounts (per capita)
    • waste compostion
      • degradable organic and fossil carbon content
      • composition changes during treatment
example of a waste stream

STREAM A (composting)

(total 100 >> 78 ton)

(Mois. 20 >> 30 ton)

(DOC 40 >>8 ton)

Paper Waste

GENERATION

(total 1000 ton)

(Mois. 200 ton)

(DOC 400 ton)

STREAM B (incineration)

(total 200 >> 20 ton)

(Mois. 20 >> 5 ton)

(DOC 40 >>0 ton)

SWDS

(total 293 ton, Mois. 50 ton and

DOC 48 ton)

RESOURCE

RECOVERY

(total 500 ton)

(Mois. 100 ton)

(DOC 200 ton)

STREAM C (direct landfillingland filling)

(total 200 >> 195 ton)

(Mois. 20 >> 15 ton)

(DOC 40 >> 40 ton)

Example of a waste stream
data collection for solid waste treatment and disposal1
Data Collection for solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Waste composition - waste fractions
      • paper/cardboard • garden/parkwaste
      • textiles • wood
      • rubber/leather • food waste
      • plastic • ash, inerts, other
      • metal
      • glass
data collection for solid waste treatment and disposal2
Data Collection for solid waste treatment and disposal
  • Updated values for degradable organic content in the waste fractions (default in wet and dry waste, ranges)
  • data also on industrial waste generation in some countries
    • a table with default values for composition and carbon content in industrial waste by industry type to be developed in Second Order Draft

Activity data collection addressed both under solid waste treatment and disposal (general) and the management/treatment options (specific)

solid waste disposal sites landfills
Solid waste disposal sites (landfills)
  • Methodological issues for estimation of CH4 emissions
    • use of the mass balance method discouraged
    • Tier 1 First order decay method developed
      • equation in GPG2000 improved (more precise and easy to use: step by step guidance and spreadsheets provided)
      • provides also an estimate on carbon stored in the landfill (check for HWP)
      • Tier 1a - waste composition FOD model
      • Tier 1b - site-type dependent FOD model
solid waste disposal sites landfills1
Solid waste disposal sites (landfills)
  • Tier 2 - as Tier 1 but using key country-specific data (waste disposal data for at least 10 years, DOC or Lo)
  • Tier 3 - typically based on high-quality site-specific measurements or modelling
solid waste disposal sites landfills2
Solid waste disposal sites (landfills)

Choice of activity data

  • historical data for more than 50 years (default)
    • extrapolation using population data, economic or other indicators drivers
    • MSW - default population or urban population, depending on availability of data
    • Industrial waste - industrial production by industry type, or GDP, depending on availability of data

Reference to statistics with population and GDP data given

solid waste disposal sites landfills3
Solid waste disposal sites (landfills)

Parameters:

  • improved guidance and/or updated values
  • methane correction factor - default also for semi-aerobic sites
  • half-life (instead of decay rate) - more transparent and easy to understand
    • by climate zone (dry and wet climates separately) and by waste compostion or site type (managed - unmanaged deep - unmanaged shallow)
biological treatment
Biological treatment
  • Methodology for CH4 and N2O emissions
  • composting and anaerobic digestion (with energy recovery to be reported in the Energy Sector

Simple equation

CH4 or N2O Emissions =  Mi  EFij

  • default emission factors derived from a limited number of literature (to be improved in the SOD)
  • MB treatment - emissions depending on application (no default method or EFs) - assumes no emissions during separation
incineration and open burning of waste
Incineration and open burning of waste
  • CO2 (from fossil carbon in waste), N2O and CH4 from incineration and open burning of waste
  • Tiers - consistent with other sources
  • Waste composition and fossil carbon content
  • EFs for both wet and dry weight
incineration and open burning of waste1
Incineration and open burning of waste
  • open burning - important in developing countries (developed countries?)
      • default: population whose waste is not collected is assumed to burn their waste (rural population)
      • in a region where urban population exceeds 80% - assumtion that no open burning of waste occurs
incineration and open burning of waste2
Incineration and open burning of waste
  • N2O and CH4 emissions - dependent on technology and combustion/burning conditions
  • CH4 - usually small or negligible in incineration - included for completeness and consistency with the Energy Sector
    • open burning of waste - more significant emissions
  • N2O - temperature, N-content of fuels,
waste water treatment and discharge disposal
Waste water treatment and discharge (disposal)
  • CH4 and N2O emissions from domestic (municipal) and industrial waste water
  • simplified methodology - wastewater and sludge together in the methodology (sludge removed subtracted - guidance on emissions from disposal or use in agriculture addressed under these sector/categories)
  • improved tier-structure for CH4 emissions
  • CH4 only from main industrial sectors
  • updated default parameters
  • examples how to estimate emissions
general for all sectors indirect co 2 and n 2 o emissions
General for all sectors - indirect CO2 and N2O emissions
  • Indirect CO2 - from NMVOC and CH4 emissions from fossil sources (combustion - oxidation factors include also indirect CO2) => not relevant for the waste sector (incomplete combustion especially for open burning of waste)?
  • NOx and NH3 emissions - source of indirect N2O emissions due from nitrogen deposition => some emissions from biological treatment, wastewater and SWDSs (importance small; methodology for the NOx and NH3 emissions in CORAIR Guidebook )
summary
Summary
  • Evolution - not revolution: methodological improvements and better default data
    • SWDS - FOD method to be used by all - improved comparability and user-friendliness
    • Biological treatment - complements the guidance, emissions estimated to be small
    • Open burning of waste - important for especially for developing countriess

First Order Draft on the Waste Volume in 2006 GLs - needs still improvements (e.g. default values and consistency among the chapters)

2006 gls next steps
2006 Gls - next steps
  • Consideration of comments from the expert review in July (Lead Author meeting in Moscow)
  • Government and Expert Review September - October
  • Consideration of comments in December
  • Final draft for IPCC approval in spring 2006
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