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Paleozoic Era Invertebrates. Chapter 12 Part 1. Paleozoic Geology. 4 transgressions Major orogenies Mountain ranges form/oceans close + open Pangaea forms. Pre-Paleozoic life. Stromatolites Ediacaran fauna. End of the Paleozoic life. Cambrian climate.

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Paleozoic Era Invertebrates

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Paleozoic era invertebrates l.jpg

Paleozoic Era Invertebrates

Chapter 12 Part 1


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Paleozoic Geology

  • 4 transgressions

  • Major orogenies

  • Mountain ranges form/oceans close + open

  • Pangaea forms


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Pre-Paleozoic life

  • Stromatolites

  • Ediacaran fauna


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End of the Paleozoic life


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Cambrian climate

  • What is the climate like coming out of the Proterozoic?

  • Where are most of the continents located?


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Cambrian

  • Animals with skeletons appear, abruptly

  • Cambrian explosion

  • Why?


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Early Cambrian fossils

  • Shelly fauna

  • Several millimeters


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Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian?

  • Precambrian oceans low in calcium carbonate (calcite)

  • Theory now rejected

  • How to disprove?


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Why develop a calcium skeleton in the Cambrian?

  • Metabolic systems evolving

  • Organism needs to eliminate mineral matter

  • Secret excess ions as skeleton


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Why develop an exoskeleton?

  • Advantages?


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Wounded Trilobite

Cambrian predator and prey

  • Anomalocaris and trilobite


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Marine communities

  • How things get around

  • Where they live

  • How they feed


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Where marine animals live/how they move

  • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic

    • Plankton are floaters

    • Nekton are swimmers


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Where marine animals live/how they move

  • Organisms live above seafloor are pelagic

    • Plankton are floaters

    • Nekton are swimmers

  • Animal plankton: zooplankton

  • Plant plankton: phytoplankton


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Where they live/how they move

  • Organisms live in/on seafloor are benthonic

  • Infauna (live in sediment)

  • Epifauna (animals)

  • Epiflora (plants)

  • Can be sessile (stationary)

  • Or mobile


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Feeding style

  • Suspension feeders: catch food from water (plants, animals, nutrients)

  • Sediment-deposit feeders: ingest sediment

  • Herbivores: plant eaters

  • Carnivore/scavenger: meat eaters


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Description

  • Benthonic, epifaunal, suspension feeder

  • Animal lives on seafloor and removes food from water


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Cambrian marine community

  • Cambrian explosion

  • Experimentation!


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Famous Cambrian fossil locations

  • Burgess Shale, British Columbia

  • Sauk Sea transgressing


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  • Sands covered with black mud

  • Shale preserved benthonic, soft-bodied community


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Why there?

  • Avalanche of mud off edge of coast trapped shallow-water creatures

  • Fine mud let soft-bodies be preserved


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Trilobites

  • Appear in the Cambrian

  • Benthonic, mobile, sediment-deposit feeders


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Trilobites

  • Member of arthropod phylum

  • Exoskeleton

  • Distinct parts to body

  • Jointed appendages


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Trilobites

  • Member of arthropod phylum

  • Exoskeleton

  • Distinct parts to body

  • Jointed appendages


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Trilobites

  • Max diversity by Late Cambrian


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Trilobites

  • Extinction at end of Cambrian

  • Increased competition?

  • Increased predation?

  • Loss of habitat?

  • Cooling seas?


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Cambrian Brachiopods

  • Two-shelled animals

  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders

  • Inarticulate: muscles held shells together


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Inarticulate Brachiopod

  • Two-shelled animals

  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders

  • Inarticulate: muscles held shells together


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Cambrian Archaeocyathid

  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders

  • Built reef-like structures


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Cambrian Archaeocyathid

  • Benthonic, sessile, suspension feeders

  • Built reef-like structures


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Other fauna

  • Arthropod from Burgess shale


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Other fauna:

  • Short-lived evolutionary experiments

  • Anomalocaris

  • Up to 3 feet long

  • Major predator


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Other fauna:

  • Short-lived evolutionary experiments

  • Helicoplacus: extinct 20 Ma after appeared


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Marella, < 1 inch


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Halluciginia


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Arthropod-like creature


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Cambrianscaly slug


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Paleozoic life

  • Cambrian Explosion

    • Exoskeleton

    • Experimentation

  • Animals to know:

    • Trilobite

    • Brachiopod

    • Archaeocyathid


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