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Reactor Accidents – An Overview. P. Trampus [email protected] 1st Hungarian - Ukrainian Joint Conference on Safety - Reliability and Risk of Engineering Plants and Components Miskolc tapolca , Hungary, 11 – 12 April 2006. Motto. „Remember, Caesar, thou art mortal”. Content.

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reactor accidents an overview

Reactor Accidents –An Overview

P. Trampus

[email protected]

1st Hungarian-Ukrainian Joint Conference on

Safety-Reliability and Risk of Engineering Plants and Components

Miskolctapolca, Hungary, 11 – 12 April 2006

motto
Motto

„Remember, Caesar, thou art mortal”

content
Content
  • Reactor figures
  • Terminology
  • The INES
  • Major reactor accidents
  • Accident risks
slide4

Timeline of First

Industrial Scale

NPPs around the

World

power reactor figures december 2004
Power Reactor Figures(December 2004)
  • Reactors in operation: 440
  • Reactors under construction: 26
  • Reactors shut down: 107
  • Operational experience: 11695 years
  • License renewal issued: > 40
  • License renewal in progress: 10
  • Letter of intent: 27
research reactor figures june 2004
Research Reactor Figures(June 2004)
  • Reactors in operation: 274
  • Reactors shut down: 214
  • Total number of reactors: 674
terminology
Terminology

Events:

  • Accidents
    • Mortality
    • Radiation release
    • Financial consequences (core melt)
    • Serious / Severe accidents
  • Incidents
  • Anomaly
  • Deviations
slide9

The INES

Jointly developed by

experts of the IAEA

and OECD/NEA,

in 1989

nature of reactor accidents
Nature of Reactor Accidents
  • Statistics cover
    • Nuclear power plants
      • civil
      • military
    • Experimental reactors
    • Research reactors
    • Reprocessing plants
    • Fuel manufacturing facilities
    • Food sterilization plants
    • Radioactive source accidents
  • Accidents types
    • Criticality accidents
    • Non-nuclear accidents (e.g. turbine fire)
possible classification of reactor accidents
Possible Classification of Reactor Accidents
  • Accidents led to death by exposure to ionizing radiation
  • Accidents with consequences on the environment and the public
  • Accidents led to staff exposure above permissible level
  • Accidents with consequences on plant availability
criticality accidents with death
Criticality Accidents with Death
  • Los Alamos (USA), 1945 1 dead
  • Los Alamos (USA), 1946 1 dead (20 Sv)
  • Vinca (former Yugoslavia), 1958 1 dead
  • Los Alamos (USA), 1958 1 dead (60 Sv)
  • Idaho Falls (USA), 1961 3 dead
  • Woods River Junction (USA), 1964 1 dead
  • Constituyentes (Argentine), 1983 1 dead
  • Chernobyl (former SU), 1986 31/50 dead
  • Tokai-mura (Japan), 1999 2 dead
accidents with consequences on the environment and the public
Accidents with Consequences on the Environment and the Public
  • Windscale (GB), 1957
    • mainly 740 TBq I-131, and others (~1/1000 of Chernobyl)
    • 126 persons contaminated (max. individual dose 0,16 Sv)
    • 98 plant workers (max. 0,1 Sv)
    • external exposure (max. 47 mSv)
accidents with staff exposure
Accidents with Staff Exposure
  • Chalk River (Canada), 1958

10 to 200 mSv

  • Chinon A1 (France), 1965

500 mSv

  • Chinon A2 (France), 1979

110 / 340 mSv

accidents with plant unavailability 1
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (1)
  • Heavy Water Reactors
    • NRX (Canada), 1952 repaired
    • Lucens (Switzerland), 1969 closed
    • EL4 (France), 1968 SG replaced
  • Gas-Cooled Reactors
    • Chapel Cross (GB), 1967 repaired
    • Saint-Laurent A1 (France), 1969 repaired
    • Saint-Laurent A2 (France), 1980 repaired
accidents with plant unavailability 2
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (2)
  • Pressurized Water Reactors
    • Reactor internals damage (some 20 plants in USA, France, Italy, SU, Germany, China)
    • SG tube rupture (many plants)
    • Other incidents
    • Three Mile Island (partial core melt, extensive inside contamination) - closed
  • Boiling Water Reactors
    • Browns Ferry (USA), 1975 – fire
    • Vandellos 1 (Spain), 1989 – fire closed
    • Other plants
accidents with plant unavailability 3
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (3)
  • Fast Breeder Reactors
    • EBR 1 (USA), 1955
    • Fermi 1 (USA), 1966
    • KNK (Germany), 1971
    • BN 350 (former SU), 1973
    • Phoenix (France), 1976
    • Rapsodie (France), 1982
    • Phoenix (France), 1982

each reactor was repaired

radioactive source accidents
Radioactive Source Accidents
  • False radiotherapy
    • Costa Rica, 1966 40 dead
    • Spain, 1990 11 dead
    • Morocco, 1984 8 dead
    • Mexico, 1962 4 dead
  • Lost sources
    • Brazil, 1987 4 dead (children)
    • Further 89 dead in various countries
slide19

Chernobyl

Windscale,

Three Mile Island

Saint-Laurent A2,

Constituyentes

Vandellos

Accidents in the

INES

historical review of accident forecast
Historical Review of Accident Forecast
  • The Brookhaven Report: Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants (WASH-740), U.S.AEC, 1957

Qualitative risk assessment

  • The Rasmussen Report: Reactor Safety Study, an Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants(WASH-1400), U.S.NRC, 1975

Quantitativerisk assessment (first in its kind)

slide21

Immediate Mortality

Risk due to Severe

Accidents

a scientist s view
A Scientist’s View

„The chance of such an event (i.e. kamikaze-style terrorists aim NPPs) cannot be assessed even by the most astute technicians or engineers: it is a matter of political or sociological judgement. But one would surely have to be a naive optimist to rate it as less than one in a hundred per year.”

Martin Rees: Our Final Century, 2003

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