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Reactor Accidents – An Overview. P. Trampus [email protected] 1st Hungarian - Ukrainian Joint Conference on Safety - Reliability and Risk of Engineering Plants and Components Miskolc tapolca , Hungary, 11 – 12 April 2006. Motto. „Remember, Caesar, thou art mortal”. Content.

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Reactor accidents an overview

Reactor Accidents –An Overview

P. Trampus

[email protected]

1st Hungarian-Ukrainian Joint Conference on

Safety-Reliability and Risk of Engineering Plants and Components

Miskolctapolca, Hungary, 11 – 12 April 2006


Motto
Motto

„Remember, Caesar, thou art mortal”


Content
Content

  • Reactor figures

  • Terminology

  • The INES

  • Major reactor accidents

  • Accident risks


Timeline of First

Industrial Scale

NPPs around the

World


Power reactor figures december 2004
Power Reactor Figures(December 2004)

  • Reactors in operation: 440

  • Reactors under construction: 26

  • Reactors shut down: 107

  • Operational experience: 11695 years

  • License renewal issued: > 40

  • License renewal in progress: 10

  • Letter of intent: 27


Research reactor figures june 2004
Research Reactor Figures(June 2004)

  • Reactors in operation: 274

  • Reactors shut down: 214

  • Total number of reactors: 674


Terminology
Terminology

Events:

  • Accidents

    • Mortality

    • Radiation release

    • Financial consequences (core melt)

    • Serious / Severe accidents

  • Incidents

  • Anomaly

  • Deviations



The INES

Jointly developed by

experts of the IAEA

and OECD/NEA,

in 1989


Nature of reactor accidents
Nature of Reactor Accidents

  • Statistics cover

    • Nuclear power plants

      • civil

      • military

    • Experimental reactors

    • Research reactors

    • Reprocessing plants

    • Fuel manufacturing facilities

    • Food sterilization plants

    • Radioactive source accidents

  • Accidents types

    • Criticality accidents

    • Non-nuclear accidents (e.g. turbine fire)


Possible classification of reactor accidents
Possible Classification of Reactor Accidents

  • Accidents led to death by exposure to ionizing radiation

  • Accidents with consequences on the environment and the public

  • Accidents led to staff exposure above permissible level

  • Accidents with consequences on plant availability


Criticality accidents with death
Criticality Accidents with Death

  • Los Alamos (USA), 1945 1 dead

  • Los Alamos (USA), 1946 1 dead (20 Sv)

  • Vinca (former Yugoslavia), 1958 1 dead

  • Los Alamos (USA), 1958 1 dead (60 Sv)

  • Idaho Falls (USA), 1961 3 dead

  • Woods River Junction (USA), 1964 1 dead

  • Constituyentes (Argentine), 1983 1 dead

  • Chernobyl (former SU), 1986 31/50 dead

  • Tokai-mura (Japan), 1999 2 dead


Accidents with consequences on the environment and the public
Accidents with Consequences on the Environment and the Public

  • Windscale (GB), 1957

    • mainly 740 TBq I-131, and others (~1/1000 of Chernobyl)

    • 126 persons contaminated (max. individual dose 0,16 Sv)

    • 98 plant workers (max. 0,1 Sv)

    • external exposure (max. 47 mSv)


Accidents with staff exposure
Accidents with Staff Exposure Public

  • Chalk River (Canada), 1958

    10 to 200 mSv

  • Chinon A1 (France), 1965

    500 mSv

  • Chinon A2 (France), 1979

    110 / 340 mSv


Accidents with plant unavailability 1
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (1) Public

  • Heavy Water Reactors

    • NRX (Canada), 1952 repaired

    • Lucens (Switzerland), 1969 closed

    • EL4 (France), 1968 SG replaced

  • Gas-Cooled Reactors

    • Chapel Cross (GB), 1967 repaired

    • Saint-Laurent A1 (France), 1969 repaired

    • Saint-Laurent A2 (France), 1980 repaired


Accidents with plant unavailability 2
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (2) Public

  • Pressurized Water Reactors

    • Reactor internals damage (some 20 plants in USA, France, Italy, SU, Germany, China)

    • SG tube rupture (many plants)

    • Other incidents

    • Three Mile Island (partial core melt, extensive inside contamination) - closed

  • Boiling Water Reactors

    • Browns Ferry (USA), 1975 – fire

    • Vandellos 1 (Spain), 1989 – fire closed

    • Other plants


Accidents with plant unavailability 3
Accidents with Plant Unavailability (3) Public

  • Fast Breeder Reactors

    • EBR 1 (USA), 1955

    • Fermi 1 (USA), 1966

    • KNK (Germany), 1971

    • BN 350 (former SU), 1973

    • Phoenix (France), 1976

    • Rapsodie (France), 1982

    • Phoenix (France), 1982

      each reactor was repaired


Radioactive source accidents
Radioactive Source Accidents Public

  • False radiotherapy

    • Costa Rica, 1966 40 dead

    • Spain, 1990 11 dead

    • Morocco, 1984 8 dead

    • Mexico, 1962 4 dead

  • Lost sources

    • Brazil, 1987 4 dead (children)

    • Further 89 dead in various countries


Chernobyl Public

Windscale,

Three Mile Island

Saint-Laurent A2,

Constituyentes

Vandellos

Accidents in the

INES


Historical review of accident forecast
Historical Review of Accident Forecast Public

  • The Brookhaven Report: Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants (WASH-740), U.S.AEC, 1957

    Qualitative risk assessment

  • The Rasmussen Report: Reactor Safety Study, an Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants(WASH-1400), U.S.NRC, 1975

    Quantitativerisk assessment (first in its kind)


Immediate Mortality Public

Risk due to Severe

Accidents


A scientist s view
A Scientist’s View Public

„The chance of such an event (i.e. kamikaze-style terrorists aim NPPs) cannot be assessed even by the most astute technicians or engineers: it is a matter of political or sociological judgement. But one would surely have to be a naive optimist to rate it as less than one in a hundred per year.”

Martin Rees: Our Final Century, 2003


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