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Background Dissociation: Lexical-gender ( king ) - recovered directly from the lexicon PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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P2. P1. Pz. P3. P4. P2. P1. Pz. P3. P4. Pz. P3. P2. P4. P1. Pz. P4. P2. P1. P3. Can context affect gender processing? ERP Evidence about differences between lexical and stereotypical gender H. Kreiner, S. Mohr, K. Kessler, and Garrod, S. CCNI, University of Glasgow, UK

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Background Dissociation: Lexical-gender ( king ) - recovered directly from the lexicon

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Background dissociation lexical gender king recovered directly from the lexicon

P2

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Pz

P3

P4

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Pz

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Pz

P3

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Can context affect gender processing?

ERP Evidence about differences between lexical and stereotypical gender

H. Kreiner, S. Mohr, K. Kessler, and Garrod, S.

CCNI, University of Glasgow, UK

[email protected]

  • The question

  • Readers experience processing difficulty when an anaphor (herself) refers to an antecedent (minister) that mismatches in gender (e.g., (a), (b)).

    • Yesterday the king left London after reminding herself about the letter.

    • After reminding herself about the letter, the king immediately went to the meeting.

  • This difficulty evidenced in both eye-tracking[1] and ERP studies[2] and has been attributed to a gender clash between the pronoun and the antecedent.

  • In this paper we ask whether, and in which conditions,

  • discourse context can modulate this clash and how this is reflected in EEG parameters.

    • Background

    • Dissociation:

      • Lexical-gender (king) - recovered directly from the lexicon

      • Stereotypical-gender (minister) – inferred from pragmatic information[3]

        Hence: Stereotypical gender – more sensitive to context effects[4].

    • Support from eye-tracking studies [1] :

      • In anaphora (a) both noun types lead to similar mismatch-effect.

      • In cataphora (b) mismatch-effect shown only for lexical-gender nouns

    • Conclusion: Stereotypical, unlike lexical gender, can be overridden when gender is prespecified by context (b).

    • Inconsistency with ERP findings:

      • Lexical features can be overridden by context[5].

      • P600 mismatching-effects for both stereotypical & lexical nouns

      • No qualitative difference in the processing of these noun types[2].

    Method

    Participants. 20 native English speakers in each experiment.

    Materials. 160 ANAPHORA sentences (e.g. a, b) in Experiment 1:

    (a1) Yesterday the king/minister left London after reminding himself about the letter.

    (a2)Yesterday the king/ministerleft London after reminding herself about the letter.

    160 CATAPHORA sentences (e.g., c, d) in Experiment 2:

    (b1) After reminding himself about the letter, the king/minister immediately went to the meeting.

    (b2) After reminding herself about the letter, the king/minister immediately went to the meeting.

    Design. 2X2 - Gender Type (lexical/stereotypical) X Matching (match/mismatch).

    Procedure.◦ Silent reading, word by word visual presentation

    ◦ 50% fillers; 25% Comprehension questions.

    Analysis.◦ 200 msec. epoch pre-stimulus onset was used as reference.

    ◦ EEG time-locked to onset of target (pronoun in Exp.1; role-noun in Exp.2

    ◦ Data filtering, Automatic artifact correction & rejection using BESA 5.1.6.

    Anaphora (Exp.1)Cataphora (Exp.2)

    250-500 ms. from target onset

    Lexical

    Stereotypical

    500-750 ms. from target onset

    Lexical

    Stereotypical

    • Findings (500-750 msec. from target onset):

    • ERP analysis: mismatching effect for both stereotypical and lexical role nouns in anaphora and cataphora.

    • ERP-components: no qualitative difference; however amplitudes - modulated by sentence structure and noun-type:

      • Anaphora: P600-like mismatching effect - larger for lexical compared to stereotypical gender

      • Cataphora sentences: only subtle interaction between gender matching and noun type

    • Discussion

    • Why does the seemingly pragmatic effect of stereotypical gender mismatching elicits a P600-like component and not an N400?

    • Sentence structure modulates ERP wave form – what does this reflect?

      • Differences in discourse alignment (the antecedent precedes the reference in anaphora and vice versa in cataphora)?

      • Different types of target words (pronouns in anaphora, nouns in cataphora) elicit different processes?

    • What can we learn from different EEG analyses?

      • Time-Frequency Representations: Gamma mismatching effects diverge between anaphora and cataphora.

    Match

    Mismatch

    Match

    Mismatch

    0-1000 ms. from target onset

    Lexical

    References:[1] Pollatsek, Bolozky, Well, & Rayner, 1981

    [2] Deutsch & Rayner, 1999

    [3] Farid & Grainger, 1996

    [4] Engbert & Kliegl, 2004

    [5] MacDonald, Mac Cumhaill, Tamariz & Shillcock (in preparation).

    Stereotypical


    Background dissociation lexical gender king recovered directly from the lexicon

    References:[1] Kreiner, H., Sturt, P. & Garrod, S. (2008). Processing definitional and stereotypical gender in reference resolution: Evidence from eye-movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 239–261. [2] Osterhout, L., Bersick, M., & McLaughlin, J. (1997). Brain potentials reflect violations of gender stereotypes. Memory & Cognition, 25, 273–285. [3] McKoon, G. and Ratcliff, R. (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440-466.[4] Carreiras, M., Garnham, A., Oakhill, J. and Cain K. (1996). The use of stereotypical gender information in constructing a mental model: Evidence from English and Spanish. The quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A(3),639-663.[5] Nieuwland, M. S., & van Berkum, J. J. A. (2006). When peanuts fall in love: N400 evidence for the power of discourse. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(7), 1098–1111.


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