Training principles
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Training Principles. The Basic Principles of Training Please put the PowerPoint in slide show mode and move to slide 2 for interactivity. Hover over a Square for more information. Adaptation. Overload. Individual differences. Progression. Training Principles. Reversibility. Specificity.

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Training Principles

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Training principles

Training Principles

The Basic Principles of Training

Please put the PowerPoint in slide show mode and move to slide 2 for interactivity


Hover over a square for more information

The Basic Principles of Training

Hover over a Square for more information

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Individual differences

Performers respond differently to the same training. This is due to factors such as gender, age, the individual’s state of training, the characteristics athletes have inherited from their parents, their personal commitment and their level of physical and mental maturity.

The Basic Principles of Training

Individual differences

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Adaptation

Is the way the body responds to the training programme. The parts of the body that are actively stressed during exercise adapt to those stresses, leading to an increase in performance.

For example, muscle strength and tone (dependent certain factors) will be increased by following a resistance training programme.

The Basic Principles of Training

Adaptation

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Overload

For the body’s systems to make these adaptations, they must be overloaded. Just taking part in an activity will not necessarily result in any improvements in fitness, as the body will not be stressed to a greater extent than normal.

The Basic Principles of Training

Overload

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Progression

The overload imposed on an athlete must be progressive. If a training programme stays at the same intensity for a whole year, adaptations will only be evident at the beginning, as after this the body will no longer be overloaded.

For example, a sedentary participant may increase the level of cardiovascular training from walking, to a 5 minute jog, to a 10 minute jog over a period of 6 weeks.

The Basic Principles of Training

Progression

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Reversibility

The adaptations that take place as a result of training are all reversible. Adaptations to endurance training can be lost more quickly than it takes to achieve them while strength gains are lost more slowly.

The Basic Principles of Training

Reversibility

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Specificity

Is the least complex training principle. In order for a training programme to be effective it must be specific for the sport and position of the performer.

The Basic Principles of Training

Specificity

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Recovery

Is one of the most overlooked principles of training. It is during the recovery sessions that the adaptations to training take place. Recovery sessions may not necessarily mean complete rest. Periods of lower intensity activity will allow the body to adapt without increasing the stress placed on it. These periods are excellent opportunities for work on technique and tactics.

The Basic Principles of Training

Recovery

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


Variation

If training programmes are repetitious, athletes can soon become bored and lose their motivation.

The Basic Principles of Training

Variation

Adaptation

Overload

Individual differences

Progression

Training Principles

Reversibility

Specificity

Recovery

Variation


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