Scientific method and standards of measurement
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Scientific Method and Standards of Measurement. SCIENCE is a method of studying the natural world. It is a process that uses OBSERVATION and INVESTIGATION to gain knowledge about natural events. Life science (biology, microbiology, etc.) studies living things.

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Scientific Method and Standards of Measurement

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Scientific method and standards of measurement

Scientific Method and Standards of Measurement


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • SCIENCE is a method of studying the natural world. It is a process that uses OBSERVATION and INVESTIGATION to gain knowledge about natural events.


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • Life science (biology, microbiology, etc.) studies living things.


Earth science geology meteorology etc investigates earth and space

Earth science(geology, meteorology, etc.) investigates Earth and space.


Physical science chemistry physics etc is the study of matter and energy

Physical science (chemistry, physics, etc.) is the study of matter and energy.


The scientific method

The Scientific Method

  • is an organized set of procedures for investigating problems. (While scientists do not always follow a rigid set of steps, most investigations will follow this general pattern.)


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • Notice how the steps always lead back towards the beginning. This is due to the fact that science is a continuous process.

  • Following the process leads to a better understanding of the world we live in.


A hypothesis is an educated guess as to a solution to a problem it is untested

A hypothesis is an educated guess as to a solution to a problem. It is untested.

  • A hypothesis should be 3 things:

  • TESTABLE (you can test it, it’s not totally crazy; “Aliens exist.”)

  • FACT BASED (not an opinion; “Blue is the best color.”)

  • a COMPLETE SENTENCE (not just a number! “36”)


Once a hypothesis has been proven true through many experiments it can be termed a theory

Once a hypothesis has been proven true through many experiments, it can be termed a THEORY.

  • A THEORY is an explanation of things or events based on many observations and investigations. It explains WHY something happens.


Scientific method and standards of measurement

A SCIENTIFIC LAW is a statement about WHAT will happen under certain conditions. It can often be explained mathematically.

  • Example : the law of gravity


Scientific method and standards of measurement

During an experiment, variables are tested. A VARIABLE is anything that can be changed (or varied) in an experiment. There are many parts to an experiment and variables.


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • Independent Variable—the one you change or control to see how it will affect the other variables

  • Dependent Variable—the one that changes in response to changes in the independent variable

  • Constant—a variable you don’t change

  • Control—a standard to which results can be compared.


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • Example—if I want to see how Miracle Grow affects plant growth, I will give it to 4 plants. One gets ½ a spoonful per week, one gets 1 spoon, one gets 2 spoons, and the last one gets none at all. I give them all the same amount of sun and water.

  • My INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the amount of Miracle Grow, because I changed it to see what effect it would have. My DEPENDENT VARIABLE is plant growth, because it depends on how much Miracle Grow the plant got. Water and sun are CONSTANTS because I didn’t change them (I didn’t want them to affect my results). The CONTROL is the one with no Miracle Grow; I compare the growth of the other plants to this one.


Standards of measurement

STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENT


Scientific method and standards of measurement

  • Measuring is an important skill, especially in the field of science. However, in order to be useful, they must be standardized.

  • Standard of measurement  an exact quantity that people agree to use as basis of comparison.

  • All measurements are compared to the standard. This way all measurements can be compared to each other.


International system of units

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS

  • Otherwise known as SI, we call it the metric system.

  • These are accepted across the world as the standard:

    PrefixSymbolMultiplying Factor

    kilo k 1000

    hecto h 100

    deka dk 10

    base 1

    deci d 0.1

    centi c 0.01

    milli m 0.001

  • Kevin Has DiarrheabutDon’t Call Mom

  • King Henry DiedbyDrinking Chocolate Milk


Converting metrics

Converting metrics


Si base units

SI Base Units

Quantity MeasuredUnitSymbol

lengthmeter m

massgram g

timesecond s

electric currentampere A

temperatureKelvin K

amount of substancemole mol

intensity of lightcandela cd


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • volume  the amount of space occupied by an object

  • mass  the amount of matter in an object

  • density  the mass per volume of a material


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