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Kinetic Molecular Theory. 1. Matter is made up of particles. The particles are always moving. Temperature is a measure of particle movement. 3. The particles are attracted to each other. 1. The attraction between particles causes the

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Kinetic molecular theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. Matter is made up of particles.

  • The particles are always moving.

  • Temperature is a measure of particle

  • movement.

3. The particles are attracted to each other


1. The attraction between particles causes the

formation of organized structure in matter - the

basis of solids and liquids.

Stronger attraction between particles increases

the probability of solids and liquids.

  • The movement of particles tends to break up organized structure in matter.

  • Higher temperatures tend to increase the

  • probability of liquids and gases


Different types of interparticle attraction
Different Types of Interparticle Attraction

Ionic bonds – attraction between positive and

negative ions. Depends on the charge

differential and size of the ions


Different types of interparticle attraction intermolecular forces imf attractions between molecules
Different Types of Interparticle Attraction Intermolecular Forces (IMF) Attractions between molecules

1. Hydrogen Bonding Attraction between a polar hydrogen of one

molecule and the negative partial charge of

another molecule.


Note the difference between the covalent bond between

hydrogen and oxygen (solid connections) and the

hydrogen bonding between the hydrogens of one

molecule and the oxygens of a second molecule.

A. Hydrogen Oxygen Covalent Bond = 463 kJ/mol

B. Hydrogen Bonding  25 kJ/mol


Different types of interparticle attraction intermolecular forces imf
Different Types of Interparticle Attraction Intermolecular Forces (IMF)

2. Dipole-dipole forces

Attraction between the partially positive side of

a polar molecule and the partially negative side

of due a second molecule.


Different types of interparticle attraction intermolecular forces imf1
Different Types of Interparticle Attraction Intermolecular Forces (IMF)

3. London Dispersion Forces (LDF)

Attraction between nonpolar molecules due to

transitory partial charges resulting from

an imbalance in electron distribution.

The probability of an imbalance increases with

increased numbers of electrons.


Transitory imbalances in electron distribution and the resulting formation of transitory dipoles
Transitory imbalances in electron distribution and the resulting formation of transitory dipoles


Ranking of the different types of interparticle attraction from strongest to weakest
Ranking of the Different Types of Interparticle Attraction from Strongest to Weakest.

1. Ionic Bonds

2. Hydrogen Bonding

3. Dipole-Dipole

4. London Dispersion Force


Compounds can be classified on the basis of their most significant interparticle attraction
Compounds can be classified on the basis of their Most Significant Interparticle Attraction

1. Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid has a polar bond with a

hydrogen. Since it is linear, it is also a polar

molecule. Hydrogen bonding is the most

significant interparticle attraction.

2. Methane

CH4 has no polar bonds so the molecule is

nonpolar. LDF are the most significant

interparticle attraction.


Compounds can be classified on the basis of their most significant interparticle attraction1
Compounds can be classified on the basis of their Most Significant Interparticle Attraction

3. Sulfur dioxide

SO2 has two polar bonds and a bent structure.

It is a polar molecule but has not polar

hydrogens. Dipole-dipole forces are the most

significant interparticle attraction.

4. Carbon dioxide

CO2 has two polar bonds but the structure

is linear and the bond are symmetrical.

The molecule is nonpolar. LDF are the most

significant interparticle attraction.


Special types of interparticle attraction
Special Types of Interparticle Attraction Significant Interparticle Attraction

Metallic Bonding

Metal atoms bonded together by a sea of

moving delocalized electrons.

Accounts for metals’ high melting and boiling point, malleability and ability to conduct electricity


Special types of interparticle attraction1
Special Types of Interparticle Attraction Significant Interparticle Attraction

Covalent Network

Atoms held together by a network of

highly structured covalent bonds.

Examples include carbon (diamond and

graphite) and silicon (silicon oxide (quartz).


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