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CIVIL WAR. Unit IVB AP United States History. Fundamental Question. How did the Civil War change the political, social, and economical landscape of the United States? Did the Civil War and Reconstruction solve the problems and conditions that led to the sectional conflict?.

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Civil war

CIVIL WAR

Unit IVB

AP United States History


Fundamental question

Fundamental Question

How did the Civil War change the political, social, and economical landscape of the United States?

Did the Civil War and Reconstruction solve the problems and conditions that led to the sectional conflict?


Confederate constitution

Confederate Constitution

We, the people of the Confederate States, each State acting in its sovereign and independent character, in order to form a permanent federal government, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity invoking the favor and guidance of Almighty God do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Confederate States of America.

Three-Fifths Clause

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment; except that any judicial or other Federal officer, resident and acting solely within the limits of any State, may be impeached by a vote of two-thirds of both branches of the Legislature thereof.

Line-item veto for President

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises for revenue, necessary to pay the debts, provide for the common defense, and carry on the Government of the Confederate States; but no bounties shall be granted from the Treasury; nor shall any duties or taxes on importations from foreign nations be laid to promote or foster any branch of industry; and all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout the Confederate States.

Congress cannot “facilitate commerce”

The importation of negroes of the African race from any foreign country other than the slaveholding States or Territories of the United States of America, is hereby forbidden; and Congress is required to pass such laws as shall effectually prevent the same.

No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law denying or impairing the right of property in negro slaves shall be passed.

Single six-year term for President

The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States; and shall have the right of transit and sojourn in any State of this Confederacy, with their slaves and other property; and the right of property in said slaves shall not be thereby impaired.

State legislatures solely responsible for amendments


Prelude to war

Prelude to War

After Lincoln’s election in 1860, several southern states seceded as warned

Lincoln promised not to interfere with slavery in the South, but explained secession was unconstitutional and prohibited

Warned about the use of force to preserve the union and placed the blame toward the secessionists

“a more perfect union”

Southern states argued for their sovereignty and had a right to secede

Explained how war was another forceful attempt by the North and the South would defend its soil


Fort sumter

Fort Sumter

April 12, 1861 in South Carolina

CSA confiscated federal forts in southern territory

Lincoln sent provisions to fort and CSA fired upon the fort thus sparking the Civil War

Four more southern states joined Confederacy afterwards

Sparked nationalism in the North and South and led to massive enlistment


North vs south

North vs. South

California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin

Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Texas


Border states

Border States

Delaware remained extremely loyal to the Union despite being a slave state

Maryland suffered through riots and disagreement between pro-CSA and pro-Union

Lincoln established martial law and suspended habeas corpus for pro-CSA members and citizens

Persuaded Maryland to be pro-Union through force

Missouri voted pro-Union, but had to deal with pro-CSA leadership; remained Union

Kentucky proclaimed neutrality, but after a CSA invasion chose the Union

“Lincoln would like God on his side but he must have Kentucky.”

Virginia divides in 1863

Counties in northwest Virginia voted for pro-Union and broke away to form West Virginia


Union advantages over csa

Union Advantages over CSA

22 million in Union population (71% of USA)

9 million in CSA population (29% of USA)

3.5 million of which are slaves

Union controlled most of the banking, capital, commerce – easier to finance the war effort

Union owned…

90% of total factories and manufacturing

70% of railroad lines

65% of farmland

97% of firearm production

Loyalty of the U.S. Navy to the Union

Educational advantages


Confederate advantages over union

Confederate Advantages over Union

Defensive war

Union needed to invade and control

Geography

Rivers and terrain

Indented coastline

Military Experience

Many U.S. military officers resigned to fight for their Confederate home states

Robert E. Lee

“Stonewall” Jackson

Cotton exports could lead to financial support

Hoped for recognition by European powers

Hoped for public opinion to build against Lincoln

Drag out the war

States’ rights prevented one solid voice

Confederate Hopes and Liabilities


Volunteers and conscription

Volunteers and Conscription

At first, citizens enthusiastically volunteered for the war at local recruitment centers, but the war dragged on and became unpopular

Conscription

Union

Enrollment Act of 1863/Civil War Military Draft Act

Eligible for males 20-45 years old

Draft quotas per congressional district

Substitution and Commutation

Pay a substitute or pay $300 ($5,400) to avoid draft

“A rich man’s war but poor man’s fight”

Confederacy

Conscription Act

Twenty Negro Law

Confederacy’s Impressment Act

Troops could take farmers’ products at prescribed rates

Impress slaves into military service


Union strategy

Union Strategy

Anaconda Plan

Naval blockade surrounding the CSA

Mississippi River

Divide the CSA in two

Richmond

Capture the capital with trained urban fighters


Eastern theater

Eastern Theater

First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861)

First major battle of the war

Demand for a quick attack, inexperienced Union troops sent in retreat by CSA’s Stonewall Jackson

Myth of quick war leads to realization of long and costly war

Union’s Peninsula Campaign (March-July 1862)

Failed attempt to capture Richmond as Union McClellan is repulsed by CSA’s Lee

Second Battle of Bull Run (August 1862)

CSA’s Lee pushed Union’s Pope back into Washington

Antietam (September 1862)

CSA wanted recognition as a nation but needed decisive, big victory

CSA’s Lee invaded Maryland but pushed back by Union McClellan

Bloodiest day in war: 22,000 killed or wounded

Loss by CSA loses possible alliances with Britain and France

Lincoln will issue the Emancipation Proclamation as a war measure

Fredericksburg (December 1862)

Lopsided loss by Union: 12,653 casualties to 5,377

Chancellorsville (May 1863)

CSA’s Lee’s “perfect battle” over Union Hooker

Loss of Stonewall Jackson, Lee’s “right arm”

Gettysburg (July 1863)

CSA’s Lee’s offensive into Pennsylvania to force peace by the Union or earn foreign support

Pickett’s Charge and failure and near destruction of CSA military

Deadliest battle of the entire war: over 50,000 casualties

Widely considered the turning point of the war for a Union victory


Gettysburg address

Gettysburg Address

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate, we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.


Western theater

Western Theater

Pea Ridge (March 1862)

Solidified Union support and control in Missouri

Shiloh (April 1862)

“I can’t spare this man; he fights.” – Lincoln on Grant

Heartland Offensive (August 1862)

Invasion of Kentucky leading the state to support the Union

Vicksburg (May-July 1863)

Union control of the Mississippi River, cutting the CSA in two


Monitor vs merrimac

Monitor vs. Merrimac

Epic battle between ironclad vessels (Battle of Hampton Roads)

Monitor fought to uphold the Union naval blockade

Merrimac/CSS Virginia fought to break and disrupt the naval blockade to send exports and receive supplies and provisions

Ended in a draw in battle, but preserved the Union naval blockade


The civil war and the world

The Civil War and the World

The Confederacy had two foreign priorities:

Foreign recognition by European powers

Economic dependency (cotton market)

Great Britain and the Civil War

Trent Affair (1861)

Union ship captures Confederate diplomats off British ship

British shipbuilders and Confederate raiders

CSS Alabama

France and the Civil War

Sympathy for Confederacy, but conquered Mexico

Cotton Diplomacy

South believed in continued European dependency on its cotton

Embargoed cotton to force economic depression in Europe - FAIL

“King CORN”

Union victories delayed or prevented recognition

Antietam was decisive along with Emancipation Proclamation


Slavery during the war

Slavery During the War

Slavery continued in the Confederacy as it was the backbone of its society

Dissolution of master-slave relationship

Inefficiency and destruction of plantations

Confederate “control”

Fear of slave revolts forced plantations east

Tighter slave codes and scare tactics

Loyalty or Freedom?

Most remained on plantations due to strong loyalty or slim chance of escape

Approaching Union forces allowed for better chances

“If slaves will make good soldiers, our whole theory of slavery is wrong.” - Georgia general


The union and blacks slaves

The Union and Blacks/Slaves

The idea of ending slavery was difficult for Lincoln

Border states were slave states, ex. Kentucky

Slavery is constitutional

Racism in the North and among Democrats

Re-election in 1864?

Confiscation Acts

First Confiscation Act (1861)

“contraband of war” - cannot apply slavery as property to states that seceded

Second Confiscation Act (1862)

Freed slaves of rebels

Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)

“freed” slaves in Confederate states

Slavery became an “official” cause of war

Opened the door for black participation in war

Very unpopular among Northerners

Blacks in the Union military - Army of Freedom

54th Massachusetts (Glory)

200,000 participants; 37,000 casualties

Thirteenth Amendment (December 1865)

Abolished slavery throughout the nation


Women during the war

Women During the War

Managed and worked farms and factories as men went to battle

Helped develop and strengthen medical field, ex. Nurses

Woman’s National Loyal League (1863)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony

End slavery, fight for women’s suffrage

Back to tradition after the war


Andersonville prison camp

Andersonville Prison Camp

Established as a Confederate POW camp in February of 1864 in Georgia

Under command of Captain Henry Wirz

“no man’s land,” conditions, Raiders vs. Regulators

Approx. 13,000 out of 45,000 died from conditions


Politics during the war

Politics During the War

Lincoln and Congress

Since the South seceded, Republicans gained control of Congress in 1860 and dominated throughout

Radical Republicans

Wanted to punish Confederacy and abolish slavery

Conservative Republicans

Pro-Union coalition

War Democrats

Against secession but supported pro-Democratic platform

Copperheads/Peace Democrats

Peace with Confederacy and return to pre-Civil War situation

Constitutional Powers and Rights

Expanded military, ordered naval blockade, spent funds without congressional approval/declaration of war

Ex parte Merryman (1861)

Suspension of habeas corpus by Lincoln unconstitutional

Ex parte Milligan (1866)

Civilians cannot be tried in military courts if civil courts still operating

The Draft Riots of 1863 in New York City

Irish workers react to Emancipation Proclamation

Copperhead Propaganda


Election of 1864

Election of 1864

Unionist (Republican)

Lincoln selected Democrat Andrew Johnson as VP

Democrats

Split by Peace Democrats and War Democrats

Nominate General George B. McClellan


Republican platform during the war

Republican Platform During the War

Financial Development

Legal Tender Act

Use of Greenbacks backed by federal government

National Bank Act (1863, 1864)

National Banking System led to federal-chartered banks to issue Greenbacks

Facilitated sale of government bonds to help finance the war

Internal Revenue Act (1862, 1864)

Progressive tax rates applied: 3% on $600-$10,000; 5% on over $10,000

Infrastructure

Morrill Tariff (1861)

Raised rates to 47%

Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)

30,000 acres of public land for each senator and representative to be sold and revenue placed in endowment fund for state colleges

Technical and agricultural colleges

Contract Labor Law of 1864

Employers imported labor to supply industries

Visions West

Homestead Act (1862)

160 acres per family for $10 ($180) to settle and develop for 5 years

Pacific Railway Act (1862)

Subsidies and land granted for railroads

Transcontinental railroad connecting California and East


Ending the war

Ending the War

Vicksburg and Gettysburg signaled the end for the Confederacy

General Ulysses S. Grant launches total war

General William Tecumseh Sherman and the March to the Sea

Scorched earth policy and confiscation from Tennessee-Atlanta-Savannah-Columbia


Peace

Peace

Appomattox - April 9, 1865

Lee surrenders to Grant

Confederates until the very end…

Guerilla tactics and “The South will rise again!”


Cost of the war

Cost of the War

Union:

110,000 KIA

250,000 Died from war effects

275,200 wounded

Confederacy:

93,000 KIA

167,000 Died from war effects

137,000 wounded

TOTAL DEAD: 625,000*

North Cost: $2.3B ($54B)

South Cost: $1B ($23B)

South Destruction: $1.5B ($35B)

American Revolution: 4,435

War of 1812: 2,260

Mexican-American War: 13,283

Spanish-American War: 2,446

World War I: 116,516

World War II: 405,399

Korea: 36,574

Vietnam: 58,220

Persian Gulf War: 383

Iraq War: 4,486

Afghanistan: 2,145

TOTAL: 646,147


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