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第 十二 章 放 射 性 和 核 反 应 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 十二 章 放 射 性 和 核 反 应. 放射性衰变过程-自发核反应 放射性衰变动力学 核的稳定性和放射性衰变类型的预测 质量亏损和核结合能 核裂变与核聚变 超重元素的合成. 习题: 4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18, 20 (1)、(3)、(5)、(7、)(9)、(11)、(13). 要点. 12.1 放射性衰变过程-自发核反应. 原子核通过自发衰变或人工轰击而进行的核反应与化学反应有根本的不同: 第一,化学反应涉及核外电子的变化,但核反应的结果是原子核发生了变化。

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第 十二 章 放 射 性 和 核 反 应

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5031770


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: 4, 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 18, 20(1)(3)(5)(7)(9)(11)(13)


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12.1


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10103 kJmol1108109 kJmol1


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12.1.1

30()300


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()

()


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P

10n11P 01e(1/2), 000, , 1/2, ,


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(1) 42He2

1/150.1 mm

24

22688Ra 22286Rn242He2

, 209

209

12.1.2


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(2) 01 (01e)

100

01

10n 11P01e00

21082Pb 21083Bi01e


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(3)

()X 200 mm88 mm


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(4) 0101e

11P 10n01e00

000.51 MeV ()

2


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(5) K

K

11P01e 10n00

74Be01e(K) 73Li00

K X K


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(6) (10n)

8736Kr 8636Kr10n


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ThUAc

ThUAc, 82

Th(4n)1323290Th 20882Pb;

U(4n2)1823892U 20682Pb;

Ac(4n3)1523592U 22789Ac

20782Pb

4423

, ,

10

14

3

8

12.1.3


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Np(4n1)1524194Pu 23792Np 20983Bi

NpThUAc20983Bi82Pb

2

11


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Thab

2322084aa6

90822abb4

23290Th64(10)20882Pb


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12.2

12.2.1

1

R(A)NRAt

ARdN/dtN

ARdN/dt N

N

dN/N dt

1nN tC

C, t0, ClnN0, N0N


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1nN1nN 0 t

NN 0et

t lg N/N0

()(Ci)3.7001010

()(rd)1106

1 Ci3.70104 rd

2.303


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2.303

2.303

2

t1/2

NN0/2

t1/2 lg 1/2

lg 20.693/

lg Nt

lg Nlg N0 t/2.303

lg N00.693 t/(2.303t1/2)

0.693 t/(2.303t1/2)t1/2


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3

t1/2t


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1gRbC1(120.9)0.478mrd, 27.8587Rb, 87Rbt1/2t

1 g RbCl87RbN

N10.27851.391021

RN0.478 mrd

0.478106478 (/s)

478/1.3910213.441019 (s1)

t1/20.693/0.693/(3.441019)6.41010 ()

t6.41010 9.21010 ()

6.0221023

120.9

dN

dt

478

N

1

0.693


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3

()t1/2

(238U):(206Pb)22:1238U4.5109 206Pb238U

n(238U) : n(206Pb)22/238 : 1/20619 : 1

238U20 mol206Pb0 mol

t lg

lg

3.3109 ()

2 38U

238U

2.303

2.303 20

0.693/(4.5109) 19


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14C:12C147N146C

147N10n 146C11P

146C

146C 147N01e00 t1/25720

CO2146C:126C1012


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CO214C:12C

, 146C, 146C, 146C:126C1012


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146C:126C0.51012

lg t/2.303

lg

0.693/t1/2 t1/25 720

N01012N0.51012

t lg

5 722 ()

N

N0

N

N0

2.303

t

57202.303 1012

0.693 0.51012


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13153I

13153I 13154Xe01e00

ARN

12.2.2


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12.3

12.3.1

Kn/p

(z20)npn/p1

, , , n/p1.6, ,


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(n/p)n/p

(1) n/p

146C 147N01e

14156Ba 14157La 14158Ce 14159Pr

(2)

8736Kr 8636Kr10n00


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(n/p) K-

(1)

1910Ne 199F01e00

(2) K-

4019K01e 4018Ar00

(3)

23892U 23490Th42He


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12.3.2


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()


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12.3.3

()

2820285082

2820285082126

21018365486


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N/P

84Be147N84Be/1:184Be21016 s

147NN/P1:1147N()


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12.4

EinsteinEmC2

1 g

EmC2103 kg(2.997 9108 ms1)2

8.9821013 m2kgs2

8.9821010 kJ

2 700 t


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l amu(1.660 541027 kg)

E1.660 541027(2.997 9108)2

1.492 391013 kJ

1 MeV1.602 181016 kJl amu

E1. 492 391013/1.602 181016

931.5 (MeV)


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94Be451.00728 amu1.00867 amu0.00054858 amu9.01219 amu

m(41.0072851.00867)

(9.012 1940.000548 58)

0.06276 (amu)

94Be(B)

B0.06276931.5

58.5 (MeV)


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(B)

BB/

94Be58.5/96.50 MeV

21H42He5626Fe1.07578.79 MeV


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12.5

12.5.1

()


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235U30Zn64Gd3020072162(60)A9513995Sr139Xe

235U 1n 95Sr 139Xe 21n

235.0423 1.0087 94.9058 138.9055 1.0087

m235.042 31.008 794.905 8

138.905 521.008 7

0.222 3 (amu)

E 207 (MeV)


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235U24n2n

106s8515kg 235U1012kJ

K(N/N0N0N)1K1.001235U233U239Pu

,


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235U235U

235UCd(GdB)1


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, 5927Co23892U23290Th6027Co23992U23390Th23992U23390Th23994Pu23392U


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2H2H3He1n 3.25 MeV

2H2H3H1H 4.00 MeV

3H2H4He1n 17.6 MeV

3He2H4He1H 18.3 MeV

2H43.2 MeV2H7.2 MeV3.6 MeV

235U207/235

0.88 MeV2H3.6 MeV

12.5.2


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()108

235U108

1H

411H 42He2 01e

61018kJ


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12.6

12.6.1

99109


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110126(108128), , (1040.10.5 s)


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(1)

28285082126()


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200

80

(1.5:1) Hg

(N/P)1

120

50

(1.5:1) Sn

90

40

(1.5:1) Zr

(n:p)

(1:1)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80


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, , , (), , 105106, ,

110126108128, 76190114184

(2)


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Z1141016


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N/P

N/P


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109Mt58Fe209Bi1014109Mt


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(107Bh(12)103s108Hs2103 s)


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12.6.2

(42He2), (01e), (01e)(00)d(21H)P(11H)n(10n)


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14N17O

147N42He 178O11H

2 000()


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X(xy)YXxyY

239Pu(, n)242Cm

23994Pu42He

24296Cm10n

93109


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99109


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1974Seaberg106(Sg)

24998Cf188O 263106Sg4 10n

5927Co10n 6027Co00

257(Fm)


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12.6.3

,

s p d f g h

2 6 10 14 18 22


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5g188950141832

88s5g6f7d8p

99s6g7f8d9p

89218


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4

22688Ra X Y Z T

5 t1/2(Fr)4.8 min1 g Fr24 min30 min?

7 9:00l 0009:00125

l0 206Pb 0.28 g238U l.7 g206Pb238Ut1/2(238U)4.5109

13 21H31H 42He10n


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15 l mol 31P42He42He? 42He 4.002 604 amu31P 30.973 76 amu

18

103Rh 115Cd 75Br 62Zn

20 :

(1) 35Cl(n)34S

(3) 56Fe(d2n)

(5) 227Ac 4He

(7) 23Na(n)23Mg

(9) 238U(n)

(11) 6Li1H 4He

(13) 12C()13N

K-


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