The cell
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The Cell. Standard 5: Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels or organization in the biosphere. Standard 4: Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

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The Cell

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The cell

The Cell

Standard 5: Identify cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems as levels or organization in the biosphere.

Standard 4: Describe similarities and differences of cell organelles, using diagrams and tables.

Standard 2: Describe the cell process necessary for achieving homeostasis, including active and passive transport, osmosis, diffusion, exocytosis, and endocytosis.


Introduction to the cell

Introduction to the Cell

  • You have been taught that Biology is the study of life or that which was once living. So how does life actually begin? It begins with molecules. Those molecules are going to form tiny structures called cells.


Introduction to the cell1

Introduction to the Cell

  • The cell is the smallest unit of life. It is the basic structure and function of living things.

  • The living parts of the universe starts off as tiny cells and grows to form our biosphere.


The cell1

The Cell

The cell is the basic building block of life. It it responsible for the many levels of organization that we come in contact with. It is organized as follows:

MoleculesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan Systems>

Organisms>Populations>Communities>EcosystemsBisosphere

This means that molecules make up cells. Cells make up tissues. Tissues make up organs and organ make up organ systems. Organ systems are going to make up organisms. Organisms will make up populations. Populations will make up communities and the communities will make up the ecosystems. The ecosystems will make up the biospehere.


The cell discovery and theory

The Cell Discovery and Theory

  • There are several scientist that are noted as making contributions to either the discovery of the cell or to making of the cell theory.


The cell discovery and theory1

The Cell Discovery and Theory

Notable Scientists

  • Robert Hooke- first viewed the cell under a microscope that he built using a piece of cork.

  • Anton van Leeuwenhoek-microscope maker and was first to view living cells under the microscope.

  • Matthias Schleiden-studied plant cells.

  • Theodore Schwann-studied animal cells.

  • Rudolph Virchow-studied how diseases affected cells.


Cell theory

Cell Theory

The cell theory states that:

  • All living things are made of one or more cells.

  • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living organisms.

  • All cells arise from pre-existing cells.


Two type of cells

Two Type of Cells

  • Prokaryotes- organism that does not contain a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Ex. Bacteria (Monera Kingdom)

  • Eukaryotes- organisms that contain a membrane bound nucleus and organelles. Ex. plant and animal cells


Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes

There are 4 types of eukaryotes.

  • Plant Cells

  • Animal Cells

  • Protist Cells

  • Fungal Cells


Plant cells

Plant Cells


Animal cells

Animal Cells


Cell organelles

Cell Organelles

  • Cytoplasm-the liquid inside the cell

  • Cell/Plasma membrane-made of lipids and proteins, it is the boundary of the cell and control what enters and leaves the cell.

  • Nucleus-control center of the cell where the genetic material is found


Cell organelles1

Cell Organelles

  • Cell wall-surrounds the plant cell and is made of cellulose

  • *Ribosomes-very small organelles that are the sites of protein synthesis.

  • Endoplasmic reticulum- system of tubes in the cytoplasm involved in transporting materials


Cell organelles2

Cell Organelles

  • Golgi Apparatus (Golgi Body or Golgi Complex)-involved in packaging and distribution

  • *Mitochondria-site of cellular respiration and is the powerhouse of the cell (where ATP is made)


Cell organelles3

Cell Organelles

  • Lysosomes-stores digestive enzymes

  • *Chloroplast-site of photosynthesis (where chlorophyll is made)

  • Vacuole-involved in food storage


Cell organelles4

Cell Organelles

The plant and animal cells share the same organelles except that plant cells have a cell wall, chloroplasts, and central (large) vacuole.


Cell locomotion

Cell Locomotion

  • Cells can either use cilia or flagella to aid in locomotion (movement)

    • Cilia- short hair-like particles found on some cells to help aid in movement and food gathering ex. on the paramecium

    • Flagella – long whip-like projections that aids in movement


Cilia and flagella

Cilia and Flagella

Cilia


Cell survival

Cell Survival

  • In order for cells to survive, they must take in nutrients and get rid of waste products, the cells move these substances in and out by either active or passive transport.


Active transport

Active Transport

  • Active Transport: the cell requires energy to move substances across the cell membrane in the opposite direction of concentration. It is not spontaneous. Active transport moves substances from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.


Active transport1

Active Transport

2 Types of Active Transport

  • Endocytosis-a form of active transport in which a cell moves substances into the cell.

  • Exocytosis- a form of active transport in which a cell moves substances out of the cell.


Active transport2

Active Transport

  • EndocytosisExocytosis


Passive transport

Passive Transport

  • Passive Transport-transport that is spontaneous and does not require energy. Molecules move through the plasma/cell membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


2 types of passive transport

2 Types of Passive Transport

  • Diffusion- the process by which substances move from an area high concentration to an area of low concentration.

    Facilitated diffusion-occurs when carrier proteins in the plasma membrane assist in the passage of materials into or out of the cell.

  • Osmosis- the movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.


Osmosis

Osmosis

  • There are 3 types of osmotic solutions

    • Isotonic Solutions-has equal concentration of substances both inside the cell and outside. The cell will not gain or lose water.

    • Hypotonic Solutions-causes the cell to swell, moves water into the cell.

    • Hypertonic Solutions--causes the cell to shrink, moves water out of the cell.


Isotonic solutions

Isotonic Solutions


Hypotonic solutions

Hypotonic Solutions


Hypertonic solutions

Hypertonic Solutions


Cell division mitosis meiosis

Cell Division, Mitosis, & Meiosis


Reproduction in cells

Reproduction In Cells

Cells can reproduce either by sexual or asexual reproduction.

  • Sexual Reproduction- reproduction using a sperm and an egg cell.

  • Asexual Reproduction- reproduction in which and organism produces another organism identical to itself or without the use of a sperm and egg cell.


Cell division reproduction

Cell Division (Reproduction)

There are two types of cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis

  • Mitosis- a type or reproduction in which the cell divides and produces 2 daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. (asexual reproduction)

  • Meiosis- a type of cell division in which the parent cell will divide twice and produce 4 gametes (sex cells) (sexual reproduction)


Meiosis and mitosis

Meiosis and Mitosis


Stages of mitosis

Stages of Mitosis

Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase & Cytokinesis


The cell

Animated Mitosis Cycle

http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm

  • Interphase

  • Prophase

  • Metaphase

  • Anaphase

  • Telophase & Cytokinesis


Interphase occurs before mitosis begins

Interphaseoccurs before mitosis begins

  • Chromosomes are copied (# doubles)

  • Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and its copy(sisterchromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase

CELL MEMBRANE

Nucleus

Cytoplasm


Interphase

Interphase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Prophase 1 st step in mitosis

Prophase 1st step in Mitosis

  • Mitosisbegins (cell begins to divide)

  • Centrioles(or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell.

  • Spindle fibersform between the poles.

Centrioles

Sister chromatids

Spindle fibers


Prophase

Prophase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Spindle fibers

Centrioles

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Metaphase 2 nd step in mitosis

Metaphase 2nd step in Mitosis

  • Chromatids(or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers.

Centrioles

Spindle fibers


Metaphase

Metaphase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Anaphase 3 rd step in mitosis

Anaphase 3rdstep in Mitosis

  • Chromatids(or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell.

Centrioles

Spindle fibers


Anaphase

Anaphase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Telophase 4th s tep in mitosis

Telophase4th step in Mitosis

  • Two new nuclei form.

  • Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods).

  • Mitosisends.

Nuclei

Nuclei

Chromatin


Telophase

Telophase

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm


Cytokinesis occurs after mitosis

Cytokinesisoccurs after mitosis

  • Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its ownnucleus with identical chromosomes.


The cell

Animal Mitosis -- Review


The cell

Plant Mitosis -- Review


Cell cycle

Cell Cycle


The cell cycle

2

3

4

5

- Cell Division

The Cell Cycle

1

6

50


Asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

Mitosis is asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is reproduction without the use of a sperm and an egg cell.


The cell

How do little elephants grow up to be BIG elephants?


Why do animals shed their skin

Why do animals shed their skin?


How does skin repair itself

How does skin repair itself?


The cell

The process of asexual reproduction begins after a sperm fertilizes an egg.


The cell

Three reasons why cells reproduce by asexual reproduction: 1. Growth 2. Repair 3. Replacement

Skin cancer - the abnormal growth of skin cells - most often develops on skin exposed to the sun.

Cells that reproduce by asexual reproduction reproduce constantly.


Forms of asexual reproduction

Forms of Asexual Reproduction

  • 4 Types of Asexual Reproduction

    • Fission- asexual reproduction in which a organism splits into two equal parts.

    • Budding- asexual reproduction in which an organism can grow another organism from the top, bottom, or sides of the organisms body.


Forms of asexual reproduction1

Forms of Asexual Reproduction

  • Regeneration- asexual reproduction in which an organism can re-grow missing body parts

  • Fragmentation- asexual reproduction in which an organism can be broken or cut up and those parts will grow into a totally new but identical organism.


Stages of meiosis

Stages of Meiosis

  • InterphaseMetaphase II

  • ProphaseAnaphase II

  • MetaphaseTelophase II

  • Anaphase

  • Telophase

  • Interkenesis

  • Prophase II


Diploid and haploid cells

Diploid and Haploid Cells

  • Haploid- having a single set or (n) number of chromosomes

  • Diploid- having two sets or two times the (n) number of chromosomes

    EX. Humans have 23 pair of chromosomes or 46 total (diploid) chromosomes. n=23 (haploid)


Sex cells

Sex Cells

Sex Cells are also referred to as gametes.

  • Sperm cells and egg cells are called gametes and contains one set of chromosomes “n or haploid”.

  • Once the sperm fertilizes the egg it becomes a zygote (somatic cell) with double the number of chromosomes (diploid).


Crossing over variation

Crossing Over - variation


Sex chromosomes

Sex Chromosomes

XX chromosome – female

XY chromosome - male


Meiosis

Meiosis

  • Meiosis is sexual reproduction.

  • The purpose of meiosis is to produce gametes (4) in preparation for reproduction. (These gametes may sometimes referred to as the daughter cells of Meiosis.)

  • Meiosis causes variation which means that no organism produced during meiosis will be identical.

    Meiosis Animation

  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter28/animation__stages_of_meiosis.html


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