Reading nonfiction
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READING NONFICTION. Types and Purposes. WHAT IS NONFICTION?. The subject of nonfiction is real The author writes about actual persons, places and events. The writer may just report facts The writer may also include personal opinions Often there is a mixture of both

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READING NONFICTION

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Reading nonfiction

READING NONFICTION

Types and Purposes


What is nonfiction

WHAT IS NONFICTION?

  • The subject of nonfiction is real

    • The author writes about actual persons, places and events.

    • The writer may just report facts

    • The writer may also include personal opinions

    • Often there is a mixture of both

    • Readers must read critically


Critical reading

CRITICALREADING

  • Look at writer’s background

  • Look at writer’s purpose

  • Look at writer’s attitude

  • Look at writer’s audience


Journalism

JOURNALISM

  • Newspapers

  • Magazines

  • Online sources


Types of journalism

TYPES OF JOURNALISM

  • Interviews

  • Columns

  • Reviews

  • Articles

  • Editorials

  • Editorial Cartoons


Essays

ESSAYS


Types of essays

TYPES OF ESSAYS

  • Formal Essay

    • A prose discussion on a serious topic in a serious manner, usually rigidly structured and organized.

  • Informal Essay

    • A prose discussion on any topic in a light, humorous, amusing manner; often loosely organized, rambling and casual in approach.


Characteristics of essays

CHARACTERISTICS OF ESSAYS

  • Essays in general

    • Prose treatment

    • Brief

    • Incomplete in its discussion of topic

    • A literary whole


Characteristics cont

CHARACTERISTICS (CONT.)

  • The Formal Essay

    • Purpose: to inform, explain, convince

    • Tone: serious, rhetorical, balanced

  • The Informal Essay

    • Narrative structure

    • Tone: conversational, sometimes witty and humorous


Humor and the essay

HUMOR AND THE ESSAY

  • Wit

    • Incongruity

    • The unexpected

    • Exaggeration

  • Humor

    • Ability to show, with sympathy, the things in life and human behavior that are funny.


Satire

SATIRE

  • A literary work in which vices, follies, stupidities, abuses, etc., are held up to ridicule and contempt.

  • A pointing out of the difference between how things are and how they ought to be.


Other types of essays

OTHER TYPES OF ESSAYS

  • Comparison and Contrast Essays

  • Persuasive Essays

  • Cause and Effect Essays


Personal chronicles

PERSONAL CHRONICLES


Diaries and journals

DIARIES AND JOURNALS

  • Diaries: a private form of writing with no further intended audience

  • Journals: varying styles and topics. Give a glimpse of the writer’s value of his or her world


Letters

LETTERS

  • Private Letters

  • Public Letter

  • Letters can

    • Reveal character

    • Express opinions

    • Ask for information

    • Give information

  • Audience and Purpose influence tone.


Personal reflections

PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

  • Personal Reflections must be memorable and significant and :

    • Give character insight

    • Lead to an unexpected conclusion

    • Show how a lesson was learned

    • Awaken feeling of pity, compassion, joy and nostalgia


Autobiography

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

  • Written by the subject for publication

  • Author has some purpose for writing

    • To teach

    • To arouse awareness

    • To warn

    • Simply to entertain


Memoirs

MEMOIRS

  • A TYPE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAOL WRITING, DEALING WITH THE RECOLLECTIONS OF PROMINENT PEOPLE OR PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN A PART OF OR HAVE WITNESSED SIGNIFICANT EVENTS.

  • CONSIDERED BOTH AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL


Biography

BIOGRAPHY

  • The accurate presentation of a life story from birth to death of an individual.

  • Historical biographies include strands of an individual’s life interwoven with historical persons, places and events.


Other types of nonfiction

OTHER TYPES OF NONFICTION

  • Speeches

  • Historical Writing

  • Science Writing

  • Technical writing

  • Writing online

  • Miscellaneous writing


Elements of nonfiction

ELEMENTS OF NONFICTION

  • Characters, Plot, and Setting. Like fiction, nonfiction has characters, plot, and setting. However, these elements are real, not made up. The main character in an autobiography or biography is called the subject. The subject's words, thoughts, and actions are presented.


More elements

MORE ELEMENTS

  • Purpose. Different types of nonfiction have different purposes. Biographies and autobiographies, for example, have the purpose of informing the reader. They use explanatory, descriptive, and narrative paragraphs. Other types of nonfiction, such as newspaper editorials, are intended to win readers over to a certain opinion. They use persuasive paragraphs. Sometimes a piece of writing combines purposes.


And more elements

AND MORE ELEMENTS

Tone. The writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter is called tone. A writer's tone may be sympathetic, It may be bitter, It may be comic, hopeful, solemn, or anything the writer likes.


How to read nonfiction

HOW TO READ NONFICTION

  • Try to separate Facts from Opinions.

  • The writer has chosen facts that present a certain picture of the subject.

  • Think about what might be missing as well as what is there.


More reading tips

MORE READING TIPS

  • Think about the writer's purpose.

  • Is the writer trying to win you over to his or her opinion?

  • Learn to appreciate how well a writer says something, even when you don't agree.

  • Be a critical reader.


Final reading tips

FINAL READING TIPS

  • Be aware of the writer's tone.

  • Frequently a writer reveals much about himself or herself by the tone he or she uses.

  • This is especially important in autobiographical writing


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