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Coffee Contract. Role of seller Anderson Coffee Role of buyer Statler Hotel, Cornell University 10 minutes to read materials 20 minutes to negotiate. Slicing the Pie. How do you get the biggest piece? Preparation Offers Alternatives Concessions. Offers.

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Coffee contract
Coffee Contract

  • Role of seller

    • Anderson Coffee

  • Role of buyer

    • Statler Hotel, Cornell University

  • 10 minutes to read materials

  • 20 minutes to negotiate


Slicing the pie
Slicing the Pie

  • How do you get the biggest piece?

  • Preparation

    • Offers

    • Alternatives

    • Concessions


Offers
Offers

  • Folklore says to let the other party make the first offer

    • Is that a good idea?

  • Anchoring

    • People tend to focus heavily on the first offer

    • First offer correlates .85 with the final price


Offers continued
Offers (continued)

  • What if the other party makes the first offer?

    • Immediate counteroffer

    • Take away the psychic hold of the 1st offer


Offers continued1
Offers (continued)

  • How do you feel when the other party accepts your first offer?

    • I should have asked for more

    • Maybe I just got into a bad deal

    • Less satisfaction

  • Do not accept first offers

    • They are just that – an opener

    • Expectation to negotiate


Batna
BATNA

  • Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement

    • The lowest acceptable value to an individual for a negotiated agreement

  • Develop alternatives so you know at what point to stop negotiating

  • Gives you the POWER to walk away

    • If we cannot receive an offer of X-amount for the house, then what will you do?

      • Rent it out?


What s your bottom line
What’s your bottom line?

  • “Tell me the bare minimum you would accept and I’ll try and throw in something extra”

  • “Why don’t you tell me the very maximum you are willing to pay, and I’ll try and I’ll see if I can shave off a bit”


Concessions
Concessions

  • Need some cushion (Target price versus reservation price)

  • Make the first concession

    • Why?

    • Norm of reciprocity

    • Positive feelings

  • Magnitude of concessions

    • Less and less to signal you are reaching the end


Now what
Now What…..

  • I want the last remaining orange and so do you


Principled negotiation
Principled Negotiation

  • Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In

    • Fisher & Ury

  • Principled Negotiation Strategies

    • Integrative negotiations

  • MIND-SET


Mythical fixed pie piece 1
Mythical Fixed-Pie: Piece 1

  • Assume there can only be one winner and one loser (distributive bargaining approach)

    • Fail to find mutually agreeable trade-offs


Let s compromise
“Let’s Compromise”

  • The middle ground

    • “Let’s split the difference”

      • Seems like a good strategy: Isn’t it better than no deal at all?

    • However, the middle ground results in incomplete satisfaction for both parties

      • “Leaving money on the table”


  • However, only a small percentage of organizational negotiations are purely distributive, involving just one resource or just one issue

  • Consider:

    • Price, delivery date, financing, service, relationships

    • Salary, bonuses, flexible scheduling, location, vacation, moving expenses


Negotiation approaches
Negotiation Approaches

Distributive Integrative

Characteristics Bargaining Bargaining

Available resources:

Primary MINDSET:

Primary interests:

View of relationships:

Fixed amount of

resources to be divided

I win, you lose

Opposed to each other

Short term

Variable amount of

resources to be divided

I win, you win

Convergent

with each other

Long term


Integrative negotiation process and preparation
Integrative Negotiation Process and Preparation

  • BATNA

  • Determining & Valuing Interests

  • Objective Criteria

  • Sitting down at the negotiation table

    • Convey your interests effectively

    • Emotional Strategy

  • Where do you start?


Focus on interests not positions
Focus on interests, not positions:

  • How do interests differ from positions?

    • Behind opposed positions lie shared and/or compatible interests

  • Each side likely has multiple interests that may be valued differently by each party

    • Complete satisfaction for both parties

  • There may be only one way to satisfy a position, but there are multiple ways to satisfy interests


Preparation interests not positions
Preparation: Interests, not positions

  • Do you know your interests?

    • Identify and valueyour interests

      • Ranking process is one way to start

      • Consult with team to help valuation process


Logrolling approach
Logrolling Approach

  • Trade-off on issues that are valued differently

  • Concessions

    • Concede on issue that is valued lowest to you – it may be of higher value to the other

      • Salary versus moving expenses


Mythical fixed pie piece 2
Mythical Fixed-Pie: Piece 2

  • The interests of the other party conflict with ours

    • “What’s good for them must be bad for us”

    • Our theories and assumptions about negotiation and conflict strongly impact our approaches and behaviors


Salt u s russia
SALT (U.S. & Russia)

  • “I have had a philosophy for some time in regard to SALT, and it goes like this: the Russians will not accept a SALT treaty that is not in their best interest, and it seems to me that if it is in their best interest, it can’t be in our best interest”

    • Floyd Spence, U.S. Congress


Finding compatible interests can be difficult
Finding Compatible Interests Can Be Difficult

  • Pairs were presented with a negotiation involving multiple issues regarding a job offer.

    • On two of these issues, the opposing sides had completely compatible interests (similar to an interest in the orange peel versus an interest in the fruit)

    • What percentage of the time did the negotiators make the trade-offs?

      • 50%

    • Left money of the table ½ the time


Ways to find out the other party s interests and related values
Ways to find out the other party’s interests and related values

  • Ask questions

    • Listen to the response!


  • Contingent concessions values

    • I can give here if you can give on something

  • Make multiple offers simultaneously

    • Each is different, yet results in the same level of profitability for you


Neutral party
Neutral Party values

  • Two students in a library, one wants the window open, the other wants it closed. A loud argument breaks out.

  • How might this be resolved?

    • Fixed-pie assumptions

    • Anger closes our minds to alternative solutions

      • Not wanting to “give in”

  • There may be just ONE way to satisfy a position, but there are MULTIPLE ways to satisfy interests.

    • Inventing options for mutual gain


Sitting down at the table
Sitting down at the table values

  • Perceive yourself working side by side with the other party to resolve the issue

    • Separate the people from the problem

      • Resist the temptation to “attack” people

  • Typically sit across from the other


The same side
The Same Side values

  • Try sitting on the same side of the table

    • Together we can attack this problem


Presentation approaches
Presentation Approaches values

  • Option 1: “I want that orange because I am interested in baking an orange cake and I need the peel”

  • Option 2: “I am interested in baking an orange cake and I need the peel, that’s why I want that orange”

    • How are these options different?

    • Which one better ensures the other knows your interests?


Approaching the issues where do we start
Approaching the Issues: valuesWhere do we start?

A. Start with the easy issues first!

B. Start with the most difficult ones first!

C. Either A or B: It depends

D. Start with all of the issues at once


Emotional strategy
Emotional Strategy values

  • Poker face

  • Positive

  • Tough: Negative, Angry & Forceful


For integrative bargaining
For Integrative Bargaining… values

  • Positive is best

    • More creative, more ideas

    • Found most trade-offs for joint gain

      • Highest level of value

  • Detriments of anger

    • Found fewest trade-offs

    • Least value


  • Expressing positive emotion values

    • “Put on a happy face”

    • Your smile is often reciprocated by the other side in terms of:

      • Positive feelings and behaviors

        • Finding trade-offs

        • Offering concessions


Policy
Policy values

  • “It’s company policy – there is nothing I can do”

  • Two volunteers to read an example?


Insist on objective criteria
Insist values on objective criteria

  • Search for a standard such as market value, expert opinion, law

    • This way, neither party is “giving in” to the other and a fair agreement is possible

      • We are asking for $200,000 in fees

      • How did you arrive at that figure?


Conclusions
Conclusions values

  • Most negotiations leave money on the table

    • Too quick to compromise

    • Fixed-pie assumptions are prevalent

      • Assume it is all or nothing

      • Assume our interests conflict with the other side


Reaching agreement without giving in
Reaching agreement valueswithout giving in

  • To maximize value for you and the other party adopt an integrative mindset

    • Interests, not positions

    • Develop your BATNA

    • Adopt a problem-solving approach


Short long term benefits
Short & valuesLong Term Benefits

  • A collaborative approach may seem counter-intuitive, but it is often more effective

  • Consider joint gains and positive word of mouth

  • Better over the long run


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