Beyond Crossroads: Summer Workshop. Where in the World Am I?. MAC 3 2006 Project. Integrating Mathematics with Geology. CWC Students & GPS. 7 + 1 Standards for Intellectual Development from Crossroads and Beyond Crossroads. Problem Solving Modeling (real world situations)
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Beyond Crossroads: Summer Workshop
in the World
using grid overlays
Direction of Travel Arrow
Read Bearing Here
Next, rotate the Azimuth Ring so that 270º is at the Direction of Travel Arrow
Now, rotate your body and the entire compass until the Magnetic Needle aligns North with the Orienting Needle.
Finally, walk following the Direction of Travel Arrow.
Your next direction is 120º. Set your compass and orient it.
Suppose you would like to identify the bearing from where you are standing to the nearest doorway.
Face the doorway so that the direction of travel arrow is pointing in the direction of the doorway.
Rotate the magnetic needle until it is in the orienting needle.
Read the bearing at the direction of travel arrow. Remember, each tick mark represents 2 degrees.
Unlike latitude and longitude, the UTM system is man-made. (It was developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1940’s.)
For this reason many scientists object to using it.
The globe is subdivided into narrow longitude zones, which are projected onto a Transverse Mercator projection.
A grid is constructed on the projection, and used to locate points.
A cylinder touching the globe at the central meridian of a longitude zone lies entirely outside the earth.
A cylinder that touches the outer edges of the zone lies entirely inside the earth within the zone.
A cylinder that touches the globe at two points is the best compromise.The scale along the central meridian of each zone is 0.9996 of true scale. True scale occurs about 180 kilometers east and west of the central meridian.
The upside of the grid system is that, since the grid is rectangular and decimal, it is far easier to use than latitude and longitude.
The downside is that, unlike latitude and longitude, there is no way to determine grid locations independently.
UTM grid coordinates are expressed as a distance in meters:
to the east, "easting",
to the north, "northing".
There are no negative numbers
Minimum and maximum easting values are:
167,000 mE and 833,000 mE (at equator)
465,000 mE and 515,000 mE at 84° N
At the equator
Using a UTM grid overlay
42 90 155 N
13 5 20 685 E
42 90 155 N
13 5 20 685 E
and is 1000 meters north.
you will need a tool that is
marked in finer divisions.
One such tool is a
The position of the mark can be determined more precisely using a corner tool.