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第 十 三 章. 基因表达调控. Regulation of Gene Expression. François Jacob Jacques Monod (1920 ~ ) (1910 ~ 1976) 荣获 1965 年诺贝尔生理或医学奖. 第 一 节 基本概念与原理. Basic Conceptions and Principle. 一、基因表达的概念. * 基因 (gene).

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第 十 三 章

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Regulation of Gene Expression


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Franois Jacob Jacques Monod

(1920 ~) (1910 ~ 1976)

1965


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Basic Conceptions and Principle


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*(gene)

RNADNA


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* (genome)

(DNA)

: (DNA)

(DNA)

2~2.5


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* (gene expression)


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(temporal specificity)

(stage specificity)


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(spatial specificity)

(cell or tissue specificity)


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(housekeeping gene)


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(constitutive gene expression)


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(induction)

(repression)


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(coordinate expression)(coordinate regulation)


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mRNA


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DNA

DNA

RNA


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() DNA

1

(operon)2


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  • (promoter)

RNADNA


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pol

  • 2 (operator)

    • (repressor)

RNARNADNA


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DNA

B

A

2 (cis-acting element)

DNA


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TATACAATRNA


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:DNA

*RNA-pol

*DNA


Activator

*(activator):

  • DNARNARNA

  • RNA


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(trans-acting factor)


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  • () DNA -

    • -

DNA-

DNA


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-

DNA-(dimer)(polymer)

DNA-DNA


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() RNA

1 /RNA

/RNA

RNA

RNA


2 rna

2RNA

DNA--RNA


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Regulation of Prokaryotic

Gene Transcription


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RNA


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E. coli


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(lac operon)


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pol

DNA

I

P

O

Z

Y

A

mRNA

1


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DNA

I

P

O

Z

Y

A

mRNA

mRNA

-

pol


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TTGACA

TATAAT

2CAP

lac

TTTACA

N17

TATGTT

N6

A

  • RNA-polcAMP-CAP


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CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

+ + + +

DNA

P

O

Z

Y

A

CAP

cAMP

CAP

cAMP


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(IPTG)

CAPDNA

cAMP

CAP


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3

CAP

CAP

/

lac (catabolic repression)


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RNA-pol

O

O

mRNA

O

O

cAMP

cAMP


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  • Rho

    Rho

Rho

GC

T


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E.coli

RNA


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  • (RNA)

    mRNA

    mRNA


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RNA

RNARNA mRNA mRNA30sSD


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  • RNAinterfering RNA, iRNA

  • RNARNA90co-repression

  • iRNApost transcriptional gene silencing, PTGS

  • RNARNA interfering, RNAi


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Regulation of Eukaryotic

Gene Transcription


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DNA 3 10 9

30000 6 %

rDNA 5% ~ 10%

80%90%


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106

103 ~ 104

5`AAACCACCGCTGGTAGCGGTGGTTT3`

3`TTTGGTGGCGACCATCGCCACCAAA5`


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() RNA

()

()

()

()


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45S

-

rRNA

hnRNA

5S

-

rRNA

tRNA

snRNA

RNA

RNA


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1.

DNase IDNADNase I


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RNA-pol

2. DNA

DNA

RNA

RNADNA


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DNA5%

3. DNA

4.

Lys

H2A, H2B

H3


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Rna pol pol

RNA-polpol

RNA-pol

1. rRNA

-45 ~ +20bp

UCE-156 ~ -107bp

2.

UCE


Rna pol

RNA-pol

*tRNA5S rRNA

*

ICR

*tRNAICRATGGCNNAGTGG

BGGTTCGANNCC

* TF B

*TF C

*5S rRNATF A TF C


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RNA-pol

DNA


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TATA

GC

CAAT

1. promoter

RNA


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TATA:TATAAAA

25 -30bp

TFD

GC:GGGCGG

CAAT:GCCAAT

-30 -110bp


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TAATCAAT/GC


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2. (enhancer)

DNA

3. (silencer)


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1.

* (general transcription factors)

RNARNA(mRNAtRNArRNA)

TFD


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* (special transcription factors)

:(EBP)

:


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TF

DNA

-

2.


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DNA

1. (zinc finger)

GC

C Cys

H His


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Cys

Zn

His


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2. -

CAAT


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3 leucine zipper

  • -

  • -C-30(7)

  • N-DNA


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  • C-N-YYDNA


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4--(helix-loop-helix)


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pol

TFF

TFH

TAF

TAF

TAF

TFA

TBP

TFB

DNA

TATA

mRNA

TBP

RNA(PIC)


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TFH

    • (pre-initiation complex, PIC)


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*DNA

*DNA

*DNA


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  • hnRNA

  • mRNA

    mRNA

  • RNAi :RNA

    mRNA


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  • eIF)

  • RNA

dsRNA

dsRNA

ADP

ATP

eIF2-P

eIF2

Pi


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