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第 十 三 章. 基因表达调控. Regulation of Gene Expression. François Jacob Jacques Monod (1920 ~ ) (1910 ~ 1976) 荣获 1965 年诺贝尔生理或医学奖. 第 一 节 基本概念与原理. Basic Conceptions and Principle. 一、基因表达的概念. * 基因 (gene).

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第 十 三 章

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Regulation of Gene Expression


Franois Jacob Jacques Monod

(1920 ~) (1910 ~ 1976)

1965


Basic Conceptions and Principle


*(gene)

RNADNA


* (genome)

(DNA)

: (DNA)

(DNA)

2~2.5


* (gene expression)


(temporal specificity)

(stage specificity)


(spatial specificity)

(cell or tissue specificity)


(housekeeping gene)


(constitutive gene expression)


(induction)

(repression)


(coordinate expression)(coordinate regulation)





mRNA



DNA

DNA

RNA


() DNA

1

(operon)2


  • (promoter)

RNADNA


pol

  • 2 (operator)

    • (repressor)

RNARNADNA


DNA

B

A

2 (cis-acting element)

DNA


TATACAATRNA


:DNA

*RNA-pol

*DNA


*(activator):

  • DNARNARNA

  • RNA


(trans-acting factor)



  • () DNA -

    • -

DNA-

DNA


-

DNA-(dimer)(polymer)

DNA-DNA


() RNA

1 /RNA

/RNA

RNA

RNA


2RNA

DNA--RNA


Regulation of Prokaryotic

Gene Transcription


RNA


E. coli


(lac operon)


pol

DNA

I

P

O

Z

Y

A

mRNA

1


DNA

I

P

O

Z

Y

A

mRNA

mRNA

-

pol


TTGACA

TATAAT

2CAP

lac

TTTACA

N17

TATGTT

N6

A

  • RNA-polcAMP-CAP


CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

CAP

+ + + +

DNA

P

O

Z

Y

A

CAP

cAMP

CAP

cAMP


(IPTG)

CAPDNA

cAMP

CAP


3

CAP

CAP

/

lac (catabolic repression)


RNA-pol

O

O

mRNA

O

O

cAMP

cAMP


  • Rho

    Rho

Rho

GC

T


E.coli

RNA


  • (RNA)

    mRNA

    mRNA


RNA

RNARNA mRNA mRNA30sSD


  • RNAinterfering RNA, iRNA

  • RNARNA90co-repression

  • iRNApost transcriptional gene silencing, PTGS

  • RNARNA interfering, RNAi


Regulation of Eukaryotic

Gene Transcription


DNA 3 10 9

30000 6 %

rDNA 5% ~ 10%

80%90%


106

103 ~ 104

5`AAACCACCGCTGGTAGCGGTGGTTT3`

3`TTTGGTGGCGACCATCGCCACCAAA5`


() RNA

()

()

()

()


45S

-

rRNA

hnRNA

5S

-

rRNA

tRNA

snRNA

RNA

RNA


1.

DNase IDNADNase I


RNA-pol

2. DNA

DNA

RNA

RNADNA


DNA5%

3. DNA

4.

Lys

H2A, H2B

H3



RNA-polpol

RNA-pol

1. rRNA

-45 ~ +20bp

UCE-156 ~ -107bp

2.

UCE


RNA-pol

*tRNA5S rRNA

*

ICR

*tRNAICRATGGCNNAGTGG

BGGTTCGANNCC

* TF B

*TF C

*5S rRNATF A TF C


RNA-pol

DNA


TATA

GC

CAAT

1. promoter

RNA


TATA:TATAAAA

25 -30bp

TFD

GC:GGGCGG

CAAT:GCCAAT

-30 -110bp


TAATCAAT/GC


2. (enhancer)

DNA

3. (silencer)


1.

* (general transcription factors)

RNARNA(mRNAtRNArRNA)

TFD


* (special transcription factors)

:(EBP)

:


TF

DNA

-

2.


DNA

1. (zinc finger)

GC

C Cys

H His


Cys

Zn

His


2. -

CAAT


3 leucine zipper

  • -

  • -C-30(7)

  • N-DNA


  • C-N-YYDNA


4--(helix-loop-helix)


pol

TFF

TFH

TAF

TAF

TAF

TFA

TBP

TFB

DNA

TATA

mRNA

TBP

RNA(PIC)


TFH

    • (pre-initiation complex, PIC)


*DNA

*DNA

*DNA


  • hnRNA

  • mRNA

    mRNA

  • RNAi :RNA

    mRNA


  • eIF)

  • RNA

dsRNA

dsRNA

ADP

ATP

eIF2-P

eIF2

Pi


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