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Warm Up. Get a marker or colored pencil Pick up a notes packet. Chapter 9: Memory. Memory. Memory: persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information. Gives us our sense of self and connects us to past experiences. Vivid Memories.

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Warm up

Warm Up

  • Get a marker or colored pencil

  • Pick up a notes packet

Chapter 9 memory

Chapter 9: Memory



  • Memory: persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information.

  • Gives us our sense of self and connects us to past experiences.

Vivid memories

Vivid Memories

  • Flashbulb Memories: clear memory of an emotionally significant event or moment.

  • Usually personally meaningful or historically significant.

    • 911

    • OJ

Memory as information processing

Memory as Information Processing

  • Memory is similar to a computer (write to file, save to disk, read from disk).

  • 3 Basic Steps to Memory:

  • Encoding: getting information into the memory system.

    • File Cabinet

    • Needs to be organized

  • Storage: the retention of the encoded information over time.

  • Retrieval: process of getting information out of the memory system.

  • Three stage processing model of memory

    Three Stage Processing Model of Memory

    • Stage One: The initial recording of sensory information in the memory system is referred to as sensory memory.

    • Stage Two: sensory memories are processed into short term memory your activated memory which can only hold a minimal amount of information.

    • Stage Three: short term memories are encoded into long-term memory, the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse from which we retrieve.

    Concept of working memory

    Concept of Working Memory

    • Working Memory: similar to short-term memory but focuses more on manipulation of information.

    • Working Memory and Short-Term Memory are both quite limited in capacity and duration.

    • You can only hold so much information in your working memory at one given time.

    • Magic Number tends to be 7 +/- 2.

    Process of encoding 2 types




    Process of Encoding: 2 Types

    Types of encoding

    Types of Encoding

    • Automatic Processing

      • unconscious encoding of incidental information

        • space

        • time

        • frequency

      • well-learned information

        • word meanings

      • we can learn automatic processing

        • reading backwards

    Automatic processing reading backwards

    Automatic Processing: Reading Backwards

    • Reading backwards requires effort at first but after practice becomes automatic.

    • .citamotua emoceb nac gnissecorp luftroffE

    • Automatic processing allows us to do multiple things at once and re-illustrates the concept of parallel processing.

    Effortful processing

    Effortful Processing

    • Effortful Processing: type of encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

    • Ex: Learning new vocabulary terms, memorizing historical events/chronology, etc.

    • Encoding can be aided by maintenance rehearsal: simple rote repetition of information in consciousness or even more successfully by elaborate rehearsal: processing of information for meaning which can more easily help produce long term memories.

    King of memory experiments is hermann ebbinghaus

    King of Memory Experiments is Hermann Ebbinghaus

    • Wanted to research capacity of verbal memory.

    • Looked to study to see capacity of peoples’ memories to study strings of non-sense syllables.

    • Ex: JIH, FUB, YOX, XIR,

    General findings

    1. Next in Line Effect- don’t concentrate/remember when you know you are going to have to speak next

    2. Info right before we sleep is not remembered

    3. Taped info is not remembered

    General Findings

    Findings of ebbinghaus

    Findings of Ebbinghaus

    • 4. Practice makes perfect. The more rehearsal he did on day 1, the less rehearsal it took to learn the syllables again on day 2. Over learning increased retention.

    • 5. The Spacing Effect: the tendency for studying over a long period of time produces better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. SPACED STUDYING BEATS CRAMMING!!!

    Findings of ebbinghaus1

    Findings of Ebbinghaus

    • 6. Serial Position Effect: our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. Ex: Presidents

    Types of encoding1

    Types of Encoding

    • Semantic Encoding: encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words…

      • yields best memory.

  • Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words….

    • usually the least effective.

    • “ if the glove doesn’t fit , you must acquit”

  • Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.

  • Self Reference Effect- do better on things we relate back to ourselves

  • Example


    • 1. Is the word in capital letters?

      • Visual

  • 2. Does the word rhyme with train?

    • Acoustic

  • 3. Would the word GUN fit in this sentence. The girl put the ___ on the table

    • Semantic

  • Types of encoding2

    Types of Encoding

    Encoding imagery

    Encoding Imagery

    • Imagery: creating mental pictures, helps effortful processing especially when combined with semantic encoding.

    • Recall of events is often colored by highest joys and lowest lows of events…usually remember events differently than you evaluated them at the time.

    • Mneumonics: memory aids, often use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

    Organizing information for encoding

    Organizing Information for Encoding

    • Chunking

      • organizing items into familiar, manageable units

        • like horizontal organization- 1776149218121941

        • 1776 1492 1812 1941

        • Phone numbers

      • often occurs automatically

      • use of acronyms

        • HOMES- Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior

      • A way to get over the 7 +/- 2 rule

    Process of chunking organized information is more easily remembered

    Process of Chunking: Organized Information is More Easily Remembered




    or effortful)











    • complex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories

    • Organized info. is remembered better

    Memory demo 1

    Memory Demo 1


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    Demo 2

    Demo 2

    • Bed Quilt D ark Silence Fatigue Clock Snoring Night Toss Tired Night Toss Tired Night artichoke Turn Night Rest Dream

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