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Stakeholder perspectives and Impact Measurement. Professor Jenny Rowley Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. Previously– (Copenhagen). Raised the importance of considering stakeholders in e-government

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Stakeholder perspectives and Impact Measurement

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Stakeholder perspectivesand Impact Measurement

Professor Jenny Rowley

Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

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Previously– (Copenhagen)

  • Raised the importance of considering stakeholders in e-government

  • Undertook an exercise to think about the benefits potentially sought by different stakeholder groups

  • Suggested some commonality in benefits sought by different groups, but also concluded that priorities might vary between groups (see next slides).

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Differing priorities (benefits sought) for different stakeholder groups 1

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Differing priorities (benefits sought) for different stakeholder groups 2

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Agenda for this session

  • Reviewing stakeholder analysis (10 mins)

  • Stakeholder analysis and e-gov impact measurement (10mins)

  • Activity - Stakeholder ‘salience’ (10mins)

  • Plenary session and discussion (10mins)

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Reviewing stakeholder analysis

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Who are stakeholders?

  • Stakeholders are people or organizations who either:

    • stand to be affected by a project or policy, or

    • could ‘make or break’ the success of a policy or project.

  • They may be winners, losers, included in or excluded from decision making, users of results, and/or participants in the development and implementation process.

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Why think about stakeholders?

  • Recognition that various stakeholder groups have a role to play in ensuring the long-term success of the eGov enterprise (Flak and Nordheim, 2006; Scholl, 2004;)

  • Future envisaged with increased accountability, transparency, open government and participation (UN, 2008; Millard, 2008, etc)

  • Evaluation starts with objectives – to design good evaluation tools and processes it is necessary to understand the objectives of all stakeholder groups.

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Stakeholder analysis and management

  • Stakeholder analysis and management involves:

    • Identification of key stakeholders (i.e. those stakeholders who have significant influence upon or importance to an activity, policy, or community)

    • Assessment of the interests, behaviours, intentions, agendas, claims, and perspectives of those stakeholders

    • Understanding the ‘salience’ of the stakeholders

    • Appreciation of the interaction between stakeholders

    • Identification of potential conflicts

    • Negotiation and management of those conflicts

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e-Governance and stakeholder theory

  • Stakeholder analysis helps to identify:

    • the organizations and individuals to keep informed and involved, and

    • what roles they can and should play at each stage.

  • Stakeholder theory encourages increased collective responsibility for e-Governance

  • Some believe that e-government involves a fundamental realignment of the objectives of government and public administrations with the needs of primary stakeholders

  • Some argue that any analysis of e-governance must be underpinned by notions of stakeholder management.

  • Nevertheless, the effectiveness of stakeholder analysis depends upon its being integrated with other policy analysis and project management approaches and tools.

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Stakeholder salience

  • The concept of salience acknowledges that not all stakeholders are equal, and there is discrimination in the extent to which the claims of different stakeholders are acknowledged.

  • Different dimensions of salience

    • Relative power, legitimacy, and urgency (of claims)

    • Influence, importance

    • Interest, influence, impact, support

    • Interest, power.

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Defining dimensions of salience 1

  • Influence – the power a stakeholder has to facilitate or impede a policy reform design and implementation

  • Importance - the priority given to satisfying the needs and interests of a specific stakeholder

  • Interest – the perceived level of interest that a stakeholder has in the policy reform – ranging from ‘commitment to status quo’ to ‘openness to change’

  • Impact – the degree to which the policy reform will impact on a stakeholder

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Defining dimensions of salience 2

  • Power - the level of coercive power that a stakeholder has to command compliance in the policy process

  • Resources – the level of resources that a stakeholder possesses and are able to bring to bear in the policy process

  • Legitimacy – the degree of legitimacy of a stakeholder’s interest (i.e. the extent to which the stakeholder’s claims are see to be appropriate by other stakeholders)

  • Urgency – the urgency that should be attached to the competing claims of a stakeholder.

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Stakeholder analysis and e-government impact measurement

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Some areas for Impact measures

  • Economic productivity

  • Economic growth

  • Jobs

  • Competitiveness

  • Local and regional development

  • Environmental improvement and sustainable development

  • Inclusion

  • Democracy, participation and citizenship

  • Quality of life/happiness

  • Increased justice and security

  • Universal rights and peace (Millard, 2008)

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Impacts, measures and stakeholders

  • Are impacts in all of these areas equally important to all stakeholder groups/roles?

  • If not, how do we ensure that the interests of all stakeholder groups/roles are adequately represented in any set of impact measures?

  • What is the role of different stakeholder groups in developing impact measures?

  • What is the role of different stakeholder groups in conducting evaluation based on frameworks of impact measures?

  • What is the ‘unit’ of impact analysis – e.g. specific projects, e-government programmes, or, the ‘e-government project’?

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Impact relationships

  • The dynamic between stakeholders and impact is multi-dimensional. For example:

    • Stakeholders may influence the impact of e-government (stakeholder engagement/ management can influence the impact of e-government)

    • E-government may impact on stakeholders and their activities

    • Stakeholders may influence impact measurement

    • Impact measurement may affect stakeholders and their activities.

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  • Stakeholder attributes are a function of the social networks to which they belong, and the multiple roles that they play.

  • Stakeholders interact with each other – they network, negotiate, and influence each other.

    • Social network theory:

      • network density

      • centrality

  • Alliances and coalitions are continually modified to accommodate perceptions of future opportunities

  • Stakeholder groups/roles are dynamic – both members and interests change.

  • Who selects the stakeholders and who lends them the authority to do this?

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  • However, since the e-government endeavour is dynamic and ongoing, provided that:

    • Stakeholders are involved from the beginning of the development of e-government

    • Objectives (at the impact level, as well as at output and outcome levels) for e-government are clearly identified at the beginning, and,

    • Measurements of impact inform future programme objectives.

  • there is some hope of a holistic approach to stakeholders and impact measurement.

  • Perhaps the real challenge is achieving and sustaining joined-up planning and policy making in a complex and dynamic social, political, cultural and economic environment?

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    Stakeholder salience

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    • Aim:

      • To offer a context for thinking about and discussing the challenges associated with incorporating a stakeholder perspective into impact measurement criteria and processes

    • Activity:

      • In pairs, complete the grids for the general project ‘e-government’, or, if your prefer, in relation to a specific e-government project or programme

      • Compare your allocation of stakeholders on the different grids - how does their relative importance and influence change?

      • How did you decide on your allocation of stakeholders to boxes?

      • What lessons are there for impact measurement?

      • Report back briefly on key points in the plenary session

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    Stakeholder groups

    • People as service users

    • People as citizens

    • Businesses

    • Small-to-medium sized enterprises

    • Public administrators (employees)

    • Other government agencies

    • Non-profit organizations

    • Politicians

    • E-Gov project managers

    • Design and IT developers

    • Suppliers and partners

    • Researchers and evaluators

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    • The relative salience (influence/importance) of different stakeholder groups in promoting their interests in the context of:

      • e-government delivery

      • e-government impact measurement.

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    E-government delivery - a sample salience grid

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    E-government impact measurement - a sample salience grid

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    Plenary discussion

    Towards an Understanding of Stakeholders and Impact Measurement

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    To conclude

    Thank you for your input

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