WEAK NOUN PHRASES: SEMANTICS AND SYNTAX. Barbara H. Partee University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Acknowledgements. Thanks to many students in classes at RGGU and MGU for data, suggestions, and ideas about weak NPs in Russian.
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Barbara H. Partee
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Thanks to many students in classes at RGGU and MGU for data, suggestions, and ideas about weak NPs in Russian.
Thanks to Vladimir Borschev, Elena Paducheva, Ekaterina Rakhilina, and Yakov Testelets for ongoing discussion of the Russian Genitive of Negation.
This material is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. BCS-0418311 to B.H. Partee and V. Borschev.
Montague: Noun Phrases denote sets of properties.
Semantic type for NPs:
(e t) t
(the set of all of John’s properties)
j: type e P, walk: type e t
(the set of properties that every student has)
λPx[student(x) P(x)] (walk)
x[student(x) walk (x)]
(the set of properties at least one student has)
λP [x[king(x) & y( king(y) y = x) & P(x))]
(the set of properties the one and only king has)
(e t) ((e t) t)
to give a a generalized quantifier, a function of type (e t) t, which in turn applies to a VP meaning to give truth value.
D(A)(B) = D(AB)(E).
“Every cat is in the tree” is false but “Every cat which is in the tree exists” is true.
More than 5 students are women ≡ More than 5 women are students.
Три вещи на кухне черные кошки
Все вещи на кухне черные кошки
e: entity type
<e,t> : (extensional) predicate type
<s,<e,t>>: (intensional) property type
<<e,t>,t>: generalized quantifiers: Montague’s NP type, and the agreed-on type for essentially quantificational NPs
(i) predicate nominals: John is a student.
(ii) Some say also: There is a cat on the mat. (McNally, Landman, Kamp)
(11) Caroline found a unicorn.
(12) Caroline sought a unicorn.
seek’ (x, ^Q) try’ (x, ^[Q(y find’ (x,y))]).
(unambiguous; lacks ambiguity of (c))
Zimmermann: seek a unicorn:
( ^ is Montague’s ‘intension operator’)
(a) Петя нашел ответ.
(b)Петя не нашел ответ.
(c)Петя не нашел ответа.
(a) Я не видела Машу.
(b)Я не видела Маши.
The (b) case causes problems for all “quantificational” approaches to the Genitive of Negation, unless we suggest a meaning like “any trace of Masha”.
(c)Ваня не решил все задачи.
(d)Ваня не решил всех задач.
Exs. (c-d) may differ in scope, but not in intensionality.