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MOBILIZATION ON THE HOMEFRONT. Americans join the war effort. 5 million volunteers. Soldiers. Selective Service Act added 5 million more. G.I. – “Government Issue” - first applied to uniforms, weapons, equipment; to the soldiers. WAVE Radio Operator John Falter. Women.

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Americans join the war effort

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Americans join the war effort

MOBILIZATION ON

THE HOMEFRONT

Americans join

the war effort


Americans join the war effort

  • 5 million volunteers

Soldiers

  • Selective Service Act added 5 million more

  • G.I. – “Government Issue” - first applied to uniforms, weapons, equipment; to the soldiers


Americans join the war effort

WAVE Radio OperatorJohn Falter

Women

Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)

Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFs)

Less pay, rank and benefits than men

250,000 served


Americans join the war effort

Minorities


Americans join the war effort

Hispanic

Americans

Los Angeles – 1/10th of city’s population but suffered 1/5th of city’s casualties

Post war, many veterans used the G.I. Bill to earn a college education.


Segregated units mostly non combat roles

Segregated units: mostly non-combat roles

African-Americans

  • Upon receiving a draft notice ---- “Just carve on my tombstone, ‘Here lies a black man killed fighting a yellow man for the protection of a white man.’”

  • More than a million served

Lt. Gen. George S. Patton, U.S. Third Army commander, pins the Silver Star on Private Ernest A. Jenkins of New York City for his conspicuous gallantry in the liberation of Chateaudun, France. October 13,


33 000 in uniform

33,000 in uniform

Asian

Americans

13,000 joined; one of every five living here

Served as interpreters throughout the war.

Some spies were discovered.

Radio Intercept Section, 6th AAF Radio Squadron Mobile 10th AAF, CBI Theater, September 1944.L-R: Teiho Chena, Ted Tdukiyama, Tom Goto, and Mark Akisada


Americans join the war effort

Native

Americans

  • 25,000

  • Opportunity to leave reservation and meet non-Indians

“We would not need the Selective Service Act if all volunteered like the Indians.”


Americans join the war effort

Life on the

Homefront


2 bedspread manufacturer mosquito netting and explosives

2. Bedspread manufacturer – mosquito nettingand explosives

Conversion of Factories

to Wartime

1.  Mechanical pencils – bomb parts

3. Soft drink manufacturer – filled shells with explosives

4. Liberty ships built in four days by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser

5. Henry Ford – jeeps, trucks, tanks (last civilian car -’42 Pontiac)


Women

Women

Rosie is provided by Curtis Publishing. Permission Requested.

Labor

a. 6 out of 18 million workersb. Earned 60% of a man’s salaryc. 2 million minorities


Americans join the war effort

Labor

African-Americans

- mostly menial jobs

Roosevelt’s executive order – “To provide for the full and equitable participation of all workers without racial discrimination.”


A pesticides ddt insects and lice

a.     Pesticides (DDT) – insects and lice

Scientists

As a pesticide, DDT was first used during WWII. It was so effective as an insect killer that some called it the "atomic bomb" of pesticides.

After WWII, the U.S. realized that DDT could also be used on farms to control some common agricultural pests.


Americans join the war effort

b.      Atomic bomb – Manhattan Project

Developed by American scientists, the first atomic bomb was detonated at the Trinity test site near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. The test convinced the United States government that such weapons were viable in warfare.


Americans join the war effort

c.     Penicillin

The technique to produce large amounts of penicillin was perfected by an American drug company. This technique allowed the Allies to produce enough penicillin to aide throughout the war.

A magazine ad for penicillin during WWII


Americans join the war effort

d.     Blood bank

In 1938, Dr. Charles Drew, a leading authority on mass transfusion and blood processing methods, set up a blood plasma system.

In September 1945, the American Red Cross had collected over 13 million units of blood and converted nearly all of it into plasma.

An American medic administers plasma to a wounded soldier. NARA


A propaganda films frank capra s why we fight series

a. Propaganda films – Frank Capra’s “Why We Fight” series

Entertainment

b. Public tired of propaganda; switched to musicals, romance, comedies for an escape


Americans join the war effort

Entertainment

d. USO shows

Bob Hope and his USO group in Guadalcanal.


Americans join the war effort

e. Celebrities – 1.      Jimmy Stewart and Stan Musial held up their careers to serve

2.      John Wayne booed by Marines on a USO tour for not serving


A japanese internment

A. Japanese internment

Government takes Control

B.  Office of Price Administration (OPA)1. Froze prices, rents and wages to curb inflation2. Rationing – foods such as meat, sugar (needed for explosives), butter, cheese, coffee, and vegetables


1 rationing fuel and materials vital to the war such as nylon gas oil metals rubber and plastic

1.      Rationing fuel and materials vital to the war such as nylon, gas, oil, metals, rubber and plastic

C.   War Productions Board (WPB)

2.      Decided what companies would convert and allocated raw materials

3.      Organization of scrap drives – iron, tin cans, paper, rags, cooking fata.    School childrenb.    Boy Scouts


F national war labor board nwlb 1 limited wages 2 workers could not change unions

F.     National War Labor Board (NWLB)1.      Limited wages2.      Workers could not change unions

D.    Department of the Treasury1. War bonds2. $18.75 at purchase 3. Bonds were worth $25 in ten years

E.     Limits on the right to strike

G. Office of War Information


Americans join the war effort

The armed forces’ demand for textiles led to shortages of wool and rayon, causing fashion changes at home. The WPB banned ruffles, pleats, and patch pockets, favoring the single-breasted, vestless “victory suit” over the baggy “zoot suit” in vogue at the time. To conserve silk, women painted seams up the backs of their legs to make it seem as if they were wearing stockings.

Interesting facts:


Americans join the war effort

When professional baseball players like Joe DiMaggio and Ted Williams traded in their baseball cleats for combat boots, women’s teams got a chance to keep up the country’s morale in the game.


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