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Union of the Comoros. PRESENTATION ON THE MAIN NATIONAL PRIORITIES AT THE AIMS PREPARATORY MEETING ON THE BPoA+10 Praia, Cape Verde September 1-5, 2003. General Facts. Union of the Comoros: Grande Comore 1,025 Km 2 Anjouan 424 Km 2

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Union of the comoros

Union of the Comoros

PRESENTATION ON THE MAIN NATIONAL PRIORITIES AT THE AIMS PREPARATORY MEETING ON THE BPoA+10

Praia, Cape Verde September 1-5, 2003


General facts
General Facts

Union of the Comoros:

Grande Comore 1,025 Km2

Anjouan 424 Km2

Moheli 211Km2

Mayotte 380Km

Capital: Moroni

Religion: Islam

Official languages: Comorian, French and Arabic

Population (2001): 583 222


General facts1
General Facts

  • The Comoros is an LDC with a GDP of $ 360

  • 71% of the population is rural

  • Agricultural work employs 77% of the labour force

  • The main export items are essence oils from Ylang-Ylang and spices, vanilla and cloves

  • Fishery is also a source of income but still practiced in a traditional way

  • There are about 470 endemic species on the Islands

  • The Comoros has signed or ratified all UN Treaties and Conventions related to the protection of the environment


Main environmental problems
Main Environmental Problems

  • Erosion and deforestation

  • Extinction of the rare fauna and flora causing reduction in biodiversity

  • Depletion of sources

  • Fragilisation of the coastal zone

  • Erosion of the coasts due to lifting of sand and corals for construction

  • Rising health risks

  • Uncontrolled urbanisation

  • Extended droughts

  • Rising sea levels and scarcity of underground water resources


Actions implemented by the government for environmental management
Actions Implemented by the Government for Environmental Management

  • Despite the recent political turmoil, the Comorian Government has emphasised its activities on protecting the environment

  • After the Barbados Conference, several initiatives were taken:

  • The Government created the General Management of the Environment as part of the Ministry of Production and the Environment

  • The Regional Services for the Environment

  • Introduction of National Environmental Politics and an Environmental Plan of Action

  • Initiative for an Information System

  • Creation of a Marine Park Conservation area in the island of Moheli

  • Creation of a Biodiversity Database (www.biodiversite-comoros.org)

  • Setting up of a Conservation programme for Marine Turtles


Current actions
Current Actions Management

  • Governmental

    • The General Management of the Environment has been changed into the National Management of the Environment and Sustainable Development and National Commission for Sustainable Development has been created

    • A national communication has been initiated on the climate changing issues

  • Regional

    • Regional Commissions for Sustainable Development have been set up on each island

    • Independent agencies have been created to commence the national environmental politics


  • Current actions1
    Current ManagementActions

    3. Conservation

    • Creation of a National Park on Mount Karthala

    • Setting up schemes to protect the Coelacanth and the Livingstone bats in their natural habitats

    • A program to conserve natural forests

      4. Pollution

    • Programs to monitor the coral reefs and to follow the ecotoxity levels in the marine environment have been set up

    • Regional programs to fight against the dumping of carbon hydrogen in the sea have been created

    • A Convention on Organic Pollutant products has been set up


    Current situation
    Current Situation Management

    • Geology

      • The landscape is very fertile due to the volcanic soils

      • The landscape is variable which should be taken into account in the conservation of natural resources

    • Hydrology

      • Problems with the distribution of water

      • No reserves for collecting used water

      • Polluted water is regenerated into the ground waters

    • Biodiversity

      • The potential biodiversity is not yet well known thus not well guarded and badly protected


    Current situation1
    Current Situation Management

    • Agriculture and its Pressure on Natural Resources

      • The archipelago has been modified by natural phenomenon

      • Today’s agricultural techniques are extensive but not well adapted to the current needs of the population and the natural erosion of the soils

      • Coral and sand from the costal areas have been used for construction purposes, this has weakened the naturally fragile costal ecosystems

      • Production of wood for construction and heating has destroyed the forests

      • The erosion of soils is a serious matter, especially along the coastline


    Current situations
    Current Situations Management

    • Emissions

      • The lack of emission control systems and sewage removal systems

    • Pollution

      • Natural

        • Cyclones and volcanic eruptions

      • Human related

        • Oil spills

        • Sewage dumping

    • NGOs

      • Are the mains means in protecting the environment


    Mdgs goals
    MDGs GOALS Management

    The Major Challenges

    • Eradication of Poverty and Economic Growth

      • The strategy is to work closely with different departments and the local communities and the Bretton Woods Institutions and other partners for development

  • Demographic Growth

    • With an annual population growth rate of 2.7%, it will be impossible to reduce poverty

    • The quality of life should be raised and all children should be assured primary education

    • HIV/Aids and malaria should be fought

  • Economic growth

    • To attain that objective the GNP should be raised to 2,9% per habitant

    • For the period 1990-2001 was -1,2%


  • MDGs Management

    Conclusion:

    • The target to eradicate poverty by 2015 can be achieved if the GNP could be raised until 2,9% per habitant during the period 1990-2015, but this looks impossible

    • The main concern is to get the educated population remain in the country and launch an economic development agenda of the Comoros


    Problems
    Problems Management

    • A large number of sights and scenery will disappear in the near future if urgent actions are not taken

    • New ways need to be created since educations systems have been having problems and the literacy rate is 61%

    • Coral and sand have been used as traditional materials for construction, other environmentally friendly materials need to be introduced

    • Food products are being imported, when some could be grown locally


    What can be done
    What can be Done? Management

    • Environment issues and conservation are new concepts for the Comorian population, capacity building, education awareness campaigns need to be set up to help get local populations interested and involved

    • Introduction of Youth programs are needed to educate and train them

    • Prevention of the use of the degrading natural resources and introduction of renewable energy

    • Recycling needs to be introduced

    • To grow more commonly used crops instead of importing


    The Karthala Crater Management

    The largest in the world


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