Role of containment measures in the response to sars
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Role of Containment Measures in the Response to SARS. Division of Global Migration and Quarantine Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outline. Principles of community containment Strategies that may be used in a future response to SARS Planning and preparedness activities.

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Role of Containment Measures in the Response to SARS

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Role of containment measures in the response to sars

Role of Containment Measures in the Response to SARS

Division of Global Migration and Quarantine

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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Outline

Outline

  • Principles of community containment

  • Strategies that may be used in a future response to SARS

  • Planning and preparedness activities

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Emergence of a worldwide outbreak

Emergence of a Worldwide Outbreak

  • February 11: China reports 305 cases of atypical pneumonia Guangdong province, with 5 deaths since Nov 16, 2002 in

  • February 26: WHO notified of unusual respiratory disease in a businessman in Hanoi who had recently traveled to Hong Kong

  • March 5-11: HCWs caring for the patient in Hanoi developed a similar illness. Similar illness observed in HCWs in HK.

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Sars outbreak worldwide cases by country june 3 2003

SARS Outbreak, Worldwide Cases by Country (June 3, 2003)

Germany: 10

Sweden: 3

Finland: 1

Russian Federation: 1

Canada: 198

Romania: 1

United Kingdom: 4

Mongolia: 9

Ireland: 1

Rep. Of Korea: 3

France: 7

United States: 66

Spain: 1

China: 5,328

Taiwan: 684

Switzerland: 1

Hong Kong: 1,746

India: 3

Italy: 9

Macao: 1

Philippines: 12

Kuwait: 1

Vietnam: 63

Colombia: 1

Indonesia: 2

Thailand: 8

Singapore: 206

Brazil: 2

Malaysia: 5

Australia: 5

South Africa: 1

New Zealand: 1

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Quarantine for sars 2003

Quarantine for SARS 2003

Taiwan

  • 671 cases of SARS

  • 131,132 persons quarantined

  • Included 50,319 close contacts and 80,813 travelers

    China

  • 5237 cases of SARS (2521 in Beijing)

  • 30,000 (approx) persons quarantined

    Canada

  • 250 cases of SARS

  • Over 13,000 persons quarantined (Toronto)

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Historic roots of quarantine

Historic Roots of Quarantine

  • Biblical accounts of quarantine practices for persons with leprosy

  • Epidemic plague in 14th century Europe had profound impact on commerce

    • 1348: System for treatment of infected ships, travelers, and merchandise

    • 1485: Venice established 40-day (Lat: quadragina) harbor detention or quarantine

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Quarantine in colonial america

Quarantine in Colonial America

  • Handled locally by each colony

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony (1647): arrival of vessels from West Indies restricted due to plague

  • Philadelphia (1699) Quarantine Act: “unhealthy or sickly” vessels barred from approaching shore without a bill of health and permit

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Constitutional basis of quarantine

Constitutional Basis of Quarantine

  • Intrastate quarantine power

    • Considered a police power-- an inherent authority to protect health, welfare, and morals of citizens

    • Reserved to states (10th Amendment)

  • Foreign and interstate quarantine

    • Considered essential in regulation of foreign and interstate commerce

    • Federal authority (Commerce clause)

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Public health service act 1944

Public Health Service Act (1944)

Articulates the quarantine authority of the Federal government

  • Authorizes “…apprehension, detention, and conditional release of individuals to prevent spread of communicable disease”

  • Applies to persons:

    • infected with a communicable disease in a qualifying stage”

      • Communicable stage

      • Pre-Communicable if likely to cause a public health emergency

    • arriving from foreign countries or moving state to state

42 U.S.C. § 264 (PHSA § 361)

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Diseases subject to quarantine 2003

Diseases Subject to Quarantine (2003)

  • Cholera

  • Diphtheria

  • Infectious TB

  • Plague

  • Smallpox

  • Yellow fever

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers

  • SARS

  • Others as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services

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Epidemic exponentiation

Epidemic Exponentiation

Ro = 2.0, Progression = 1:2:4:8:16

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Management strategies persons with disease

Management Strategies: Persons with Disease

Isolation

  • separation and restricted movement of illpersons with contagious disease

  • often in a hospital setting

  • primarily individual level, may be applied to populations

  • often voluntary, but may be mandatory

  • fundamental, commonly used public health practice

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Role of containment measures in the response to sars

Duration of isolation

d(exp)

d(sx)

d(hc)

d(ddx)

d(ic onset)

d(ic end)

Appropriate infection control isolation

Infection Exposure

Symptom onset

Pt seeks health care

SARS diagnosis

Contagion Epidemic ModelingGoal: R< 1, Extinction or Quenching

Isolation initiated

Isolation

ended

Encounter

Recognition

Incubation

2-10

Period of communicability

Period of risk for epidemic propagation

? Asymptomatic shedding?

Time (days)

Time (days)

2º contacts exposed and infected

Contact tracing

Public health notified

2º case ascertainment


Management strategies contacts to persons with disease

Management Strategies: Contacts to Persons with Disease

  • Range of strategies designed to meet two objectives

    • Facilitate early recognition of symptoms should they develop

    • Reduce risk of transmission before progression to disease has been recognized

  • Applied at the individual or community level

  • Close clinical monitoring key to all contact management strategies

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Management strategies contacts to persons with disease1

Management Strategies: Contacts to Persons with Disease

Clinical monitoring

  • Assessment for signs and symptoms in well person(s) exposed to a contagious disease

  • May be passive or active

  • May be done with or without activity restrictions (quarantine)

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Management strategies contacts to persons with disease2

Management Strategies: Contacts to Persons with Disease

Quarantine

  • separation and restricted movement of wellpersons presumed to have been exposed to contagion

  • often at home, may be designated residential facility

  • may be voluntary or mandatory

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Evaluating the effectiveness of quarantine

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Quarantine

Key Questions:

  • Was quarantine applied to the appropriate population? (efficiency)

  • Did use of quarantine limit progression of the outbreak? (efficacy)

  • Was the implementation of quarantine humane?

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Efficiency of quarantine sars 2003

Efficiency of Quarantine: SARS 2003

SARS attack rate among those quarantined

  • Beijing, China (n= 30,000 approx.)

    • Overall: 2.3%

    • Contact with patient 3.8%

    • Cared for sick patient31.1%

  • Taiwan (n= 131,132)

    • Overall: 0.09%

    • Close contact 0.22%

    • Travel 0.09%

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Role of containment measures in the response to sars

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

V100%,

V100%,

V100%,

V100%,

V100%,

V100%,

Q0%

Q50%

Q90%

Q95%

Q99%

Q100%

Ro=3

Ro=5

Ro=10

Impact of Varying R0 and % Quarantined on Total Smallpox Cases*

Scenario:

Smallpox aerosolized inside plane

500 persons exposed

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Modeling responses to smallpox attack

Modeling Responses to Smallpox Attack

  • In theory, post-exposure vaccination or quarantine alone can stop outbreak

  • Relying solely on either increases cases and length of outbreak

  • Relying on combined strategy

    • decreased total cases

    • stopped transmission, controlled outbreak sooner

    • fewer vaccinations needed

Meltzer M, et al. EID 2001 (Nov-Dec);7(6)

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Quarantine dichotomy

Quarantine Dichotomy

  • “Quarantine” may have negative connotations

    • Black Death, Yellow fever, Pandemic Flu

    • Detention camps equate disease with crime

    • Stigmatizes victims (e.g.,foreign born)

    • Historical abuses of power

  • Quarantine works

    • As good or better than other tools to prevent spread of contagion

    • When combined with other techniques may result in more rapid control

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Modern quarantine

Modern Quarantine

A collective action for the common good predicated on aiding individuals infected or exposed to infectious agents while protecting others from the dangers of inadvertent exposure

Public good

Civil liberties

Meeting needs of individuals infected and exposed is paramount

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Principles of community containment 1

Principles of Community Containment (1)

Containment measures are appropriate when:

  • A person or group of people has been exposed to a highly dangerousand contagiousdisease

  • Exposed well persons are separated from illcases

  • Resources are available to implement and support interventions

    • Provide essential goods and services

    • Monitor health status (active vs. passive)

    • Provide immediate triage & medical care / isolation

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Principles of community containment 2

Principles of Community Containment (2)

Containment measures encompass a range of strategies:

  • “Snow days” or “shelter-in-place”

  • Suspension or restrictions on group assembly

  • Cancellation of public events

  • Closure of mass public transit

  • Closing of public places

  • Restriction or scaling back of non-essential travel

  • Cordon sanitaire

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Principles of community containment 3

Principles of Community Containment (3)

Containment measures are used in combination with other interventions

  • Enhanced disease surveillance and symptom monitoring

  • Rapid diagnosis and treatment for those who become ill

  • Primary and 20 preventive interventions, including vaccination or prophylactic antibiotics, PPE

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Principles of community containment 4

Principles of Community Containment (4)

Quarantined persons must be among the first to receive all available disease-preventing interventions

  • Vaccination (e.g., smallpox)

  • Antibiotics (e.g., plague)

  • Early and rapid diagnostic testing and symptom monitoring

  • Early treatment if symptoms appear

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Principles of community containment 5

Principles of Community Containment (5)

Modern quarantine lasts only as long as necessary to ensure that quarantined persons do not become ill

  • Maximum quarantine duration related to the incubation period of disease

  • “Due process” rights among those subjected to quarantine restrictions

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Principles of community containment 6

Principles of Community Containment (6)

Modern quarantine does not have to be absolute to be effective

  • Even partial or “leaky” quarantine can reduce disease spread

  • Partial quarantine can be an effective supplement to vaccination

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Principles of community containment 7

Principles of Community Containment (7)

Containment measures are more likely to be applied to small numbers of exposed persons in focused settings:

  • Exposed persons on conveyance containing ill passenger(s)

  • Exposed persons in a theater where an intentional release has been announced

  • Close contact to a person with SARS

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Principles of community containment 8

Principles of Community Containment (8)

Implementation of containment measures require:

  • a clear understanding of public health roles at local, state, and federal levels

  • cooperation between public and private healthcare sectors

  • well-understood legal authorities at each level

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Principles of community containment 9

Principles of Community Containment (9)

Implementation of containment measures requires coordinated planning by many partners:

  • Public health practitioners

  • Healthcare providers

  • Healthcare facilities

  • Transportation authorities

  • Emergency response teams

  • Law enforcement

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Principles of community containment 10

Principles of Community Containment (10)

To achieve trust and cooperation, the public must be:

  • Informed of the dangers of “quarantinable” infectious diseases before an epidemic/outbreak occurs

  • Informed of the justifications for quarantine when an outbreak is in progress

  • Informed of anticipated duration and endpoints of control measures

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Sars containment strategy elements of response

SARS Containment Strategy: Elements of Response

  • Case management

  • Contact management

  • Hospital/facility infection control

  • Community response and quarantine

  • Border responses

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Sars containment strategy levels of response

SARS Containment Strategy: Levels of Response

Basic and Enhanced Activities

  • Magnitude and scope of outbreak

  • Patterns of transmission

  • Resources available for response

  • Community cooperation and trust

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Sars containment strategy case management

SARS Containment Strategy: Case Management

Basic Activities

  • Home isolation

    • Suitable for providing adequate care

    • Adequate infection control measures possible

  • Hospital isolation if medically necessary

    Enhanced Activities

  • Community-based facility isolation

  • Facility must meets patient care and infection control requirements

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Sars containment strategy contact management

SARS Containment Strategy: Contact management

  • Basic Activities

    • Monitoring without activity restrictions

      • Assessment for signs and symptoms in well person(s) exposed to a contagious disease

      • May be passive or active

    • Furlough of exposed HCWs

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Sars containment strategy contact management1

SARS Containment Strategy: Contact management

Enhanced Activities

  • Monitoring with activity restrictions

    • Home quarantine

    • Working quarantine

    • Facility-based quarantine

  • Active monitoring for all in quarantine

  • May be voluntary or mandatory

  • Range of options for optimizing compliance

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Quarantine 2003 lessons learned

Quarantine 2003: Lessons Learned

  • Clear messages about need for quarantine increased public acceptance

  • Quarantine can be voluntary in most cases

  • Mental health support is a critical need for those in quarantine

  • Implementation of large-scale quarantine is complex and resource-intensive

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Sars containment strategy community response

SARS Containment Strategy: Community Response

Basic Activities

  • Public information and education

  • Promote “respiratory hygiene” and hand washing

    Enhanced Activities

  • Focused measures to increase social distance

  • Community-wide measures to increase social distance

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Ways to increase effective social distance

Ways to Increase Effective Social Distance

  • Implement “Snow Day” restrictions

    • Close schools, daycare centers, etc.

    • Cancel large public gatherings (concerts, theaters)

    • Minimize other exposures (markets, churches, public transit)

  • Consider additional measures

    • Distribution of surgical masks

    • Temperature screening in public venues

    • Scaling back transportation services

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Sars containment strategy community response1

SARS Containment Strategy: Community Response

Basic Activities

  • Public information and education

  • Promote “respiratory hygiene” and hand washing

    Enhanced Activities

  • Focused measures to increase social distance

  • Community-wide measures to increase social distance

  • Widespread community quarantine

  • Cordon sanitaire

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Sars containment strategy border and travel responses

SARS Containment Strategy: Border and travel responses

  • Basic Activities

    • Travel advisories and alerts

    • Distribution of health alert notices

    • Responding to ill passengers

  • Enhanced Activities

    • Pre-departure and arrival screening

    • Quarantine of travelers from areas with SARS

    • Restriction of non-essential travel

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Preparedness planning general

Preparedness Planning: General

  • Establish incident command structure

  • Establish relationships with essential partners

  • Plan for monitoring and assessing appropriate response

  • Develop message strategies for various responses and groups

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Preparedness planning case and contact management

Preparedness Planning: Case and Contact Management

  • Ensure management protocols up to date

  • Establish supplies for non-hospital management

  • Establish telecommunications plan

  • Plan for ensuring essential services

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Preparedness planning community containment

Preparedness Planning: Community Containment

  • Ensure that necessary legal authorities and procedures are in place

  • Identify key partners and personnel for quarantine

  • Develop training programs and drills

  • Develop plans for mobilization and deployment

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Preparedness planning non hospital facility management

Preparedness Planning: Non-hospital facility management

  • Identify community-based facilities for quarantine of contacts

  • Ensure procedures for assessment of sites are in place

  • Develop protocols for evaluation and management of arriving ill passengers

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Conclusions

Conclusions

  • In the modern age, community containment

    • Represents a range of interventions

    • Can be resource- and labor-intensive

    • Is an important tool used in conjunction with other containment measures

  • Effective implementation of modern quarantine and other containment measures is impossible without planning and preparedness.

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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • State and Local Health Department and CDC staff who responded to SARS 2003

  • Staff of the 8 US Quarantine Stations that protect our ports of entry

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