Genomics. Lecture 3 By Ms. Shumaila Azam. Proteins. Proteins: large molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids, polypeptides. Proteins are large, complex molecules that play many critical roles in the body.
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By Ms. Shumaila Azam
(-NH2) and an acidic carboxyl group (-COOH).
The twenty amino acids (that make up proteins)each have assigned to them both three-letter (can be upper or lower case) and one-letter codes (upper case).
•Each cell contains a complete copy of the organism's genome.
•Cells are of many different types and states E.g. blood, nerve, and skin cells, dividing cells, cancerous cells, etc.
•Differential gene expression, i.e., when, where, and how much each gene is expressed.
•On average, 40% of our genes are expressed at any given time.
– ribose sugar rather than deoxyribose sugar;
– uracil (U)replaces thymine (T) as one of the bases.
Transfer RNA (tRNA) contains about 75 nucleotides, three of which are called anticodons, and one amino acid. The tRNA reads the code and carries the amino acid to be incorporated into the developing protein.
We will proceed with the transcription and translation in further classes.