Natural polymers
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Natural Polymers. By: Jordan Storey & Tomy Nicholson. Origin of the word polymer. The word polymer originates from the two Greek words: “poly” and “ meros ”. “Poly” translates to many, and “ meros ” translates to parts. Therefore, a polymer is a molecule that is composed of multiple parts.

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Natural Polymers

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Natural polymers

Natural Polymers

By: Jordan Storey & Tomy Nicholson


Origin of the word polymer

Origin of the word polymer

  • The word polymer originates from the two Greek words: “poly” and “meros”.

  • “Poly” translates to many, and “meros” translates to parts.

  • Therefore, a polymer is a molecule that is composed of multiple parts.

Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”


What is a natural polymer

What is a Natural Polymer?

  • A polymer is a long chain of thousands of identical “unit molecules” called monomers.

  • A natural polymer is a polymer that is found in nature and is not man made all natural or organic polymers come from living organisms.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3VdPladRId0/TP5ZFd0nC8I/AAAAAAAAABw/3SW4fIeLf-s/s1600/CottonMix.jpg


Key terms to understanding polymers

Key terms to understanding polymers

  • Monomer: A simple molecule that joins with others to create a long complex chain called a polymer.

  • Polymerization: The process of producing a polymer from monomers. (Bonding).

  • AdditionReaction: a reaction that creates polymers in which an unsaturated monomer becomes saturated. (It loses the double bond). (This will be explained in the next slide).

  • Condensation Reaction: polymers are formed by monomers who bond front to end. The product of this reaction is usually water. (This will be elaborated later in the presentation).

  • Functional Group: a specific arrangement of atoms that characterise chemical reaction in organic chemistry. (This is a way of classifying organic compounds).


Definition addition reaction explanation photos diagram

Definition Addition Reaction Explanation Photos/Diagram

  • This diagram shows two ethenemonomers, that form one polythene polymer. This is an addition reaction.

  • (*Notice the double bonds are lost to continue the polymer chain).

http://c1933542.cdn.cloudfiles.rackspacecloud.com/heliconhe2010/ref94.gif


Chemists who contributed to the science of natural polymers

chemists who contributed to the science of natural polymers

  • Now we will discuss three chemists responsible for the advancement of chemistry involving polymers.

http://c1933542.cdn.cloudfiles.rackspacecloud.com/heliconhe2010/ref94.gif


Thomas graham

Thomas Graham

  • In 1861 Thomas Graham, a British Chemist realized that organic compounds such as starch and cellulose would not pass through fine filters, and that they could not be purified into crystalline form. He believed the organization of the atoms in these compounds to be completely different from any other.

Thomas Graham

http://lowres-picturecabinet.com.s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/43/main/3/82270.jpg


Herman staudinger

Herman Staudinger

  • In 1920 Herman Staudinger researched polymers. He determined that polymers are composed of long chain molecules. These molecules are either identical or closely related. This discovery became the fundamental description of a polymer’s form. He later became the first polymer chemist to win a Nobel Prize.

Herman Staudinger

http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/Includes/Dialogs/Closeup.asp?ID=1532


Kurt meyer herman mark

Kurt Meyer & Herman Mark

  • In 1928 Kurt Meyer and Herman Mark demonstrated the existence of polymers by examining their crystalline structures with x-rays. These findings helped Staudinger’s findings have more credibility.

Herman Mark

http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/hmark.html


Where can they be found

Where Can they be found?

  • Since natural polymers are natural they are found in nature. The human body, plants, food, and many other living beings.


Examples

Examples

  • On the following slides are some examples of natural polymers.

Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”


Starch

Starch

  • Starch- is a polymer formed of thousands of glucose monomers. As it is being formed it produces water molecules. Starch is a carbohydrate and is therefore found in a variety of foods such as cereal grains and potatoes.

http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/391485-51517-5.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-d9M1JBeo4dI/TbBPQ4WsFXI/AAAAAAAAAFk/SxoMh5QvOhg/s1600/Starch.gif


Cellulose

Cellulose

  • Cellulose- is the most common natural, (organic) compound on earth. This polymer is the base of which plants are made of, (their stems, leaves and the trunks of trees to name a few examples. It is also composed mainly of glucose, However the difference is made by the bonding arrangement.

http://hawaii.edu/lyonarboretum/images/education/Plants-and-Me.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-d9M1JBeo4dI/TbBPQ4WsFXI/AAAAAAAAAFk/SxoMh5QvOhg/s1600/Starch.gif


Proteins or polypeptides

Proteins or Polypeptides

  • Proteins- a common example would be DNA. They are formed by the bonding of amino acids. Proteins are linked by peptide bonds, which will be discussed later in the presentation.

http://www.zmescience.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/dna.jpg


Bonding examples

Bonding Examples

  • There are different types of bonds found in polymers in the following slides we will look at a few examples.

Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”


Peptide bonds

Peptide Bonds

  • Peptide Bonds are formed by the joining of a large quantity of amino acid units. The product of peptide bonds are called polypeptides. All protein molecules are polypeptides. This reaction produces water as a by-product and is therefore a condensation reaction.

http://cerebralenhancementzone.wikispaces.com/file/view/peptide_bond.png/200318874/peptide_bond.png


Disulfide bonds

Disulfide Bonds

  • This bond is when two sulfur atoms, from two monomers that bond together.

  • In this case hydrogen is the product, in addition to the polymer.

http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/cronk/biochem/images/disulfide_bond_formation.gif


Hydrogen bonds

Hydrogen Bonds

  • These bonds occur between the O, (oxygen) and H, (hydrogen) molecules of two monomers.

http://wiki.chemeddl.org/mediawiki/images/1/16/Chapter_8_page_37-3.jpg


Salt bridge

Salt Bridge

  • Negative charged side chains attract to positive charged side chains. (See the diagram below).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Next_Revisit_Glutamic_Acid_Lysine_salt_bridge.png/300px-Next_Revisit_Glutamic_Acid_Lysine_salt_bridge.png


Info on amino acids bonding

Info on Amino Acids Bonding

  • Amino acids are the monomers in protein polymers.

  • All amino acids except one of the twenty have the same general form.

  • Amino acids have side chains that determine their form.

http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg


Examples of amino acids 1 3

Examples of Amino Acids 1/3

http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif


Examples of amino acids 2 3

Examples of Amino Acids 2/3

http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif


Examples of amino acids 3 3

Examples of Amino Acids 3/3

http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif


How to draw the structure

How to draw the structure

  • Since we know that polymers can contain thousands of monomers, this becomes a seemingly overwhelming task.

  • However when drawing the structure or writing the formula we do not focus on the entire polymer. But only on a small part of it. This is the part that is repeated throughout the polymer.

http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Graphics/PolyethyleneChain.jpg


Structure

Structure

  • Draw the monomer structure.

  • Put the brackets around the monomer. (Also notice that the monomer loses the double bond).

  • Place horizontal lines on the brackets, (this symbolizes that the monomer is bonded to other identical monomers).

  • Place either a subscript n or the number of polymer links, (if known) outside the brackets.

http://cornellbiochem.wikispaces.com/file/view/Ethene_polymerization.png/177897061/Ethene_polymerization.png


Naming

Naming

  • The naming for polymers is rather simple, they follow the same general rule.

  • Poly(name of monomer)

  • Certain polymers have more than one monomer, but it follows the same rule.

  • (There are some exceptions to this rule, some polymers have more than one name).

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Ethene_polymerization.png


Examples of polymer names

Examples of Polymer Names

http://www.ausetute.com.au/polymers.html


What is vinyl

What is Vinyl

  • Vinyl is an ethene which has 3 hydrogen atoms and 1 bond ready to take on a functional group, (substituent).

http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=vinyl+polymer+structure&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&rlz=1T4ADFA_enCA412CA413&biw=1366&bih=612&tbm=isch&tbnid=-1vXwlATDuJzaM:&imgrefurl=http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/addition_polymers.htm&docid=81Y01U7PWSDRbM&imgurl=http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/pvc_formation.jpg&w=372&h=321&ei=vudgUPuwM8-B0AH_rYH4DQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=415&vpy=152&dur=4266&hovh=209&hovw=242&tx=138&ty=112&sig=102163294003095376708&page=1&tbnh=158&tbnw=183&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:72


How to write the formula

How to Write the formula

  • When writing the formula:

  • 1. Identify the monomer.

  • 2.Use brackets with bonds coming off each side.

  • 3. Put n outside of brackets, (as a subscript), or the number of monomers, (if known).

  • Example: (See next slide)

http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg

http://www.4truth.net/uploadedimages/4truth/Figure%203.jpg


Examples of formula

Examples of formula

http://www.reading.ac.uk/scienceoutreach/images/equations/polytable.gif


Interesting facts about natural polymers

Interesting Facts about natural polymers

  • The human body has approximately 100 000 different proteins. All of these proteins are made of only 20 different amino acids, (which are polymers).

  • Polyisoprene, is a polymer harvested from tropical plants. An example would be the rubber tree, (Heveabrasiliensis). The sap from the tree is more commonly known as latex.

Polyisoprene

http://www.kew.org/plants/images/rubber.jpg

http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2008/09/polyisoprene1.png


Great resources

Great Resources

  • Great Document: http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_17_eBook.pdf

  • Great Website:

    http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/468696/polymer

  • Great Text Book:

    General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications Sixth Edition-Petrucci Harwood-ISBN 0-02-394931-7

  • Great Video:

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAruoKzTwfU


Videos

Videos

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkT7cxDsstI –A world Without Natural Polymers (3:21)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAruoKzTwfU –General Explanation (3:11)


Questions

Questions?


Sources

Sources

  • Slide 1: None

  • Slide 2:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b –Information

    Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”

  • Slide 3:

    ISBN 0-02-394931 General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications Sixth Edition -Information

    http://www.epnoe.eu/polysaccharides/a_natural_polymer -Information

    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_3VdPladRId0/TP5ZFd0nC8I/AAAAAAAAABw/3SW4fIeLf-s/s1600/CottonMix.jpg -Photo

  • Slide 4:

    ISBN 0-02-394931 General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications Sixth Edition –First Two Definitions

    Second two definitions –Prentice Hall Chemistry, Anthony C. Wilbraham, ISBN 0-13-251210-6 , Pages 747-752

    Last Definition -Prentice Hall Chemistry, Anthony C. Wilbraham, ISBN 0-13-251210-6 -Page 725

  • Slide 5:

    http://c1933542.cdn.cloudfiles.rackspacecloud.com/heliconhe2010/ref94.gif -Polythene, ethene, etheneDiagram

  • Slide 6:

    Photo Courtesy of “Clip Art’’


Sources1

Sources

  • Slide 7:

    http://www-ics.u-strasbg.fr/~etsp/lecture/mhisto_poly/hero.php -Information

    http://lowres-picturecabinet.com.s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/43/main/3/82270.jpg -Photo

  • Slide 8:

    http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.page.asp?I=211 –Information

    http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/Includes/Dialogs/Closeup.asp?ID=1532 –Photo

  • Slide 9:

    http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.page.asp?I=211 –Information

  • Slide 10:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b

    Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”

  • Slide 11:

    Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”

  • Slide 12:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b -Information

    http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/391485-51517-5.jpg –Potato Photo

    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-d9M1JBeo4dI/TbBPQ4WsFXI/AAAAAAAAAFk/SxoMh5QvOhg/s1600/Starch.gif -Diagram


Sources2

Sources

  • Slide 13:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b –Information

    http://hawaii.edu/lyonarboretum/images/education/Plants-and-Me.jpg -Photo

    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-d9M1JBeo4dI/TbBPQ4WsFXI/AAAAAAAAAFk/SxoMh5QvOhg/s1600/Starch.gif -Diagram

  • Slide 14:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b –Information

    http://www.zmescience.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/dna.jpg -Photo

  • Slide 15:

    Photo courtesy of “Clip Art”

  • Slide 16:

    General Chemistry Principles & Modern Applications ISBN: 0-02-394931-7 –Information

    http://cerebralenhancementzone.wikispaces.com/file/view/peptide_bond.png/200318874/peptide_bond.png

  • Slide 17:

    http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_17_eBook.pdf -Information

    http://guweb2.gonzaga.edu/faculty/cronk/biochem/images/disulfide_bond_formation.gif

  • Slide 18:

    http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_17_eBook.pdf -Information

    http://wiki.chemeddl.org/mediawiki/images/1/16/Chapter_8_page_37-3.jpg -Photo


Sources3

Sources

  • Slide 19:

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b4/Next_Revisit_Glutamic_Acid_Lysine_salt_bridge.png/300px-Next_Revisit_Glutamic_Acid_Lysine_salt_bridge.png -Photo

  • Slide 20:

    http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg -Diagram

    http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_17_eBook.pdf -Information

  • Slide 21:

    http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif -Diagram

  • Slide 22:

    http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif -Diagram

  • Slide 23:

    http://dwb4.unl.edu/Chem/CHEM869K/CHEM869KLinks/esg-www.mit.edu/esgbio/lm/proteins/aa/aminoacids.gif -Diagram

  • Slide 24:

    http://preparatorychemistry.com/Bishop_Book_17_eBook.pdf -Information

    http://www.ndt-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Graphics/PolyethyleneChain.jpg -Photo


Sources4

Sources

  • Slide 25:

    http://cornellbiochem.wikispaces.com/file/view/Ethene_polymerization.png/177897061/Ethene_polymerization.png -Diagram

  • Slide 26:

    http://www.ausetute.com.au/polymers.html -Information

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Ethene_polymerization.png -Diagram

  • Slide 27:

    http://www.ausetute.com.au/polymers.html -Table

  • Slide 28:

    http://www.google.ca/imgres?q=vinyl+polymer+structure&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&qscrl=1&rlz=1T4ADFA_enCA412CA413&biw=1366&bih=612&tbm=isch&tbnid=-1vXwlATDuJzaM:&imgrefurl=http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/addition_polymers.htm&docid=81Y01U7PWSDRbM&imgurl=http://www.mpcfaculty.net/mark_bishop/pvc_formation.jpg&w=372&h=321&ei=vudgUPuwM8-B0AH_rYH4DQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=415&vpy=152&dur=4266&hovh=209&hovw=242&tx=138&ty=112&sig=102163294003095376708&page=1&tbnh=158&tbnw=183&start=0&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0,i:72

  • Slide 29:

    http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg -Diagram Left

    http://www.4truth.net/uploadedimages/4truth/Figure%203.jpg –Diagram Right


Sources5

Sources

  • Slide 30:

    http://www.reading.ac.uk/scienceoutreach/images/equations/polytable.gif -Diagram

  • Slide 31:

    http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Pl-Pr/Polymers-Natural.html#b –First Fact

    Prentice Hall Chemistry, Anthony C. Wilbraham, ISBN 0-13-251210-6 , Pages 747-752 –Second Fact

    http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/kids/species-profiles/rubber-tree –Second Fact

    http://www.kew.org/plants/images/rubber.jpg –Rubber Tree Photo

    http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2008/09/polyisoprene1.png –Polyisoprene Diagram

  • Slide 32-40: (No information used from sources).


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