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from a high-energy astrophysics theory perspective. Black Holes in the Galaxy. Chuck Dermer, NRL http://heseweb.nrl.navy.mil/gamma/~dermer/default.htm. Workshop on High Energy Galactic Physics 329 Pupin Hall, Columbia University May 28-29, 2010. Outline. Energy from black holes

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Black holes in the galaxy

from a high-energy astrophysics theory perspective

Black Holes in the Galaxy

Chuck Dermer, NRL

http://heseweb.nrl.navy.mil/gamma/~dermer/default.htm

Workshop on High Energy Galactic Physics 329 Pupin Hall, Columbia University May 28-29, 2010

Outline

Energy from black holes

g-raysfrom black holes in X-ray binaries and microquasars

Leptonic jet model

Hadronic model

Colliding winds model

Synchrotron/g-ray models

g rays from isolated black holes

Galactic Center Black Hole

[Ultraluminous X-ray Sources]

Acknowledgement:

J. M. Paredes

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Cygnus

Region

Cyg X-1, 5.6 d

Cyg X-3, 4.8 hr

Credit: B. Cerutti


Black holes

Black Holes

Radio loud vs. radio quiet

  • Energy source:

    1. Evaporation

    2. Accretion—Schwarzschild (1/12) vs. Kerr

    Low efficiency outflows, ADAFs

    X-ray and radio correlations for LMXBs

    Magnetic field prescription: B2~L/R2c

    Jet sources: something special?

    3. Rotation: Kerr Black holes, large a

Hawking radiation

Blandford’s

conjecture (1990)

BZ power:

Dermer & Menon (2009)

r: ergosphere boundaries

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


G rays from black holes in x ray binaries and microquasars

g-raysfrom black holes in X-ray binaries and microquasars

  • (Young) High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and (Old) Low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs):

    High and low mass refers to companion star, not compact object

    Accretion primarily through stellar wind (HMXB) and Roche-lobe overflow (LMXB)

  • X-ray variability due to orbital timescale (pulsed emission rarely)

  • Be X-ray binaries

  • Microquasars: X-ray Binaries with Jets

  • HMXBs thought to be g-ray sources since COS-B and EGRET days

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black hole jet physics microquasars

Observer

Black Hole Jet Physics: microquasars

q

Synchrotron/Compton

Leptonic Jet Model

BLR clouds

G

Relativistically

Collimated

Plasma Jet

Target photons for scattering

Accretion regime

High mass

star

W

Accretion

Disk

Energy Sources:

1. Accretion: wind,

disk

2. Rotation Power

BH

Stellar Photons and Wind

G

Ambient

Radiation

Fields

Identifying hadronic emissions

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


G ray binaries and candidates

g-ray Binaries and Candidates

  • 3 confirmed g-ray binaries from TeV data:

    • LSI +61 303. Pulsar/binary or black-hole binary/microquasar? (GeV source)

    • LS 5039. Pulsar/binary or black-hole binary? (GeV source)

    • PSR B1259-63. Pulsar/binary system. (GeV source?)

  • Other (mostly high-mass) binaries are candidate GeV/TeV g-ray binaries, but evidence is weaker:

    • Cyg X-3 (GeV source), Cyg X-1 (MAGIC source), Cen X-3, Her X-1, SS 433,

      A 0535+26, HESS J0632+057

A total of 280 X-ray binaries (circa 2006),

including HMXBs: (131) Optical companion with

spectral type O or B. Mass transfer via Be stars

or via strong wind or Roche-lobe overflow.

LMXBs:(149) Optical companion with spectral

type later than B. Mass transfer via Roche-lobe

overflow.

8 HMXBs

35 LMXBs

280 X-ray Binaries

including 43 (15%)Radio

emitting

XRBs

At least 15 micro-quasars

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


High mass microquasars

PSR 1259-63

47 ms Be X-ray binary

Porb=3.5 yr (not a microquasar)

High Mass Microquasars

Paredes (2005)

P = 4.8 hr

LS 5039: 26 Mo O6.5V, 39000 K, 7e38 erg/s

Cyg X-3: Wolf-Rayet star V1521 Cyg

GeV/TeV Emitter

Cyg X-1: Blue supergiant, 31000 K, ~20-40 Mo, >40 Mo

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Low mass microquasars

Low Mass Microquasars

Paredes (2005)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Three eccentric binaries

Three eccentric binaries

  • MBH < 4 M or NS

  • age < 2-3 Myr

    LS 5039 (HESS)LSI +61°303 (MAGIC)

    spectral brightening with flux

3.903 d

Albert et al. ‘06

Aharonian et al. ’05

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Models for high energy g rays from g ray binaries

Models for high energy g rays from g-ray binaries

MICROQUASAR JET MODELS: Powered by accretion onto compact objet

  • Blazar-microblazar analogy

  • High mass stars provide wind (accretion energy) + photons (targets)

  • Leptonic microquasar model: electrons in the jets are accelerated up to TeV energies

  • Hadronic microquasar models

  • Mildly relativistic outflows

  • Confirming evidence: VHE emission from definite BHs (e.g Cyg X-1, V 4641, GRS 1915)

    PULSAR WIND MODEL: Powered by rotational energy of neutron star

  • PSR B1259-63, LS 5039 & LSI +61 303 have compact objects with M < 4 Mo

  • Time variability & X-ray spectrum of LSI +61 303 resemble those of young pulsars

  • LS 5039, LSI have similar spectral cutoffs to pulsars

  • LSI +61 303 is a Be star like PSR B1259-63 & all known Be/X-ray binary are NSs

  • But does not satisfactorily fit the GeV & radio wavelength fluxes in LSI & LS 5039

  • Confirming evidence: Detection of pulsations in LS 5039 & LSI +61 303

    ROTATING BLACK-HOLE WIND MODEL

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Leptonic microquasar model for ls 5039

Leptonic Microquasar Model for LS 5039

RXTE

XMM

Aharonian et al. (2005)

Companion O7 Star (L  71038 ergs s-1)

Optical stellar radiation strongly absorbs TeV photons and provides a target for jet electrons to be scattered to GeV energies

Radio emission from jets reaches 10 AU

  • Leptonic Jet Model (as in blazars)

  • Synchrotron radio/optical/X-ray emission and thermal/nonthermal accretion disk and thermal stellar radiation)

  • Compton-scattered origin of g rays: Target photons from accretion disk and stellar radiation field

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Bosch-Ramon jet model fit to LS5039 pre-Fermi

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Spectral Energy Distribution + Components…(Paredes et al. 2006, A&A 451, 259).

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

External Compton Scattering

ECS with a dominant contribution from the companion star field

  • X-ray emitting jets (by Compton, not synchrotron):

  • Cylindrical jet populated by relativistic particles emitting by IC processes.

  • Injected 100 MeV e- interact via Thomson with stellar and disk photons.

  • Applied to Cygnus X-1 and XTE J1118+480

    (Georganopoulos, Aharonian & Kirk 2002, A&A 388, L25).

ECS emission due to the

companion star

ECS emission due to

the accretion disc

ECS emission due to

the accretion disc

Cygnus X-1

XTE J1118+480

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


G rays from microquasars production and attenuation

Phase f = 0 (High mass star

closest to observer): superior conjunction

g Rays from Microquasars: Production and Attenuation

  • Compton Scattering in KN regime for TeV g rays

    • Companion Star Temperature = 39000 K = 3.4 eV

  • Orbital Modulation of Compton Scattered radiation

    • Anisotropic stellar radiation field

  • gg Attenuation

d

Böttcher and Dermer (2005)

(inf conj)

f = p

f = 0

(sup conj)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Spectral changes induced by gg opacity

Spectral changes induced by gg opacity

HESS data

Aharonian et al. 2006

Dubus et al. (2008)

M. Böttcher (2007)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Anisotropic compton scattering calculations

Parameter study using broken power law electron distribution

Anisotropic Compton Scattering Calculations

How to make GeV spectrum with break at a few GeV?

Composite pulsar + shocked wind spectrum (Torres et al. 2010)

Scattering effects

Combined scattering and gg + cascade calcultion

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Model fit to the multiwavelength spectrum of ls 5039

Model Fit to the Multiwavelength Spectrum of LS 5039

Microquasar jet model

Fit assuming EGRET and HESS data are simultaneously measured SED

EGRET emission: high-energy extension of synchrotron spectrum

Combination of Compton Scattered Stellar Radiation and SSC for TeV

  • Dermer & Böttcher 2006

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Model fit to the multiwavelength spectrum of ls 50391

Fit assuming that EGRET and HESS data are different between two epochs of measurement

Model Fit to the Multiwavelength Spectrum of LS 5039

  • In accord with variability expected from leptonic model

  • Predict orbital modulation of TeV g-rays for inner jet model

  • Orbital modulation of GeV g-rays for inner or extended jet model

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Scattering calculations

Flow evolution calculations

Scattering Calculations

Dubus, Cerutti, & Henri (2008)

KN Hardening effect:

Dermer & Atoyan (2002)

Moderski et al. (2006)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Propagation of very high energy γ-rays inside

massive binaries LS 5039 and LSI +61 303

Bednarek (2006)

Bednarek and Giovanelli (2007)

  • Primary electrons and/or gamma-rays, injected at the distance z from the base of the jet, initiate an anisotropic IC e± pair cascade in the radiation field of the massive star. A part of the primary γ-rays and secondary cascade γ-rays escape from the binary system toward the observer.

  • The cascade processes occurring inside these binary systems significantly reduce the γ-ray opacity obtained in other works by simple calculations of the escape of γ-rays from the radiation fields of the massive stars

  • The maximum in TeVγ-ray light curve predicted by the propagation effects in LSI +61 303 should occur after periastron passage (as has been observed).

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Hadronic jet models for microquasars

  • Hadronic models (only) for gamma γ-ray emission:

  • Conical jet 1014 eV protons interacting with strong stellar wind protons,

    assuming efficient wind proton diffusion inside the jet.

  • Protons are injected in the base of the jet and evolve adiabaticaly.

  • Applied to explain gamma-ray emission from high mass microquasars

    (Romero et al. 2003, A&A 410, L1).

  • The γ-ray emission arises from the decay of neutral pions created in the

    inelastic collisions between relativistic protons ejected by the compact

    object and the ions in the stellar wind.

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Model for windy high-mass stellar companion and multi-TeV protons in the jet.

Spherically symmetric wind and circular orbit

Romero,Torres, Kaufman, Mirabel 2003, A&A 410, L1

Secondary nuclear production (Aharonian & Atoyan 1996, Space Sci. Rev. 75, 357).

Photopion production for UHECRs

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

An application to LSI+61303

Romero, Christiansen & Orellana

2005, ApJ 632, 1093

  • γ-ray emission originates in pp interactions between relativistic protons

    in the jet and cold protons from the wind.

  • Opacity effects on the γ-rays introduced by the different photons fields

Blue: luminosity corrected by absorption in the stellar and disk photon fields

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

  • Models from radio to VHE:

  • Released 1014 eV protons from the jet that diffuse through and interact with the ISM.

  • Computed the broadband spectrum of the emission coming out from the pp primary interactions (γ-rays produced by neutral pion decay) as well as the emission (synchrotron, bremsstrahlung and IC scattering) produced by the secondary particles produced by charged pion-decay.

  • All the respective energy losses have been taken unto account.

  • Applied to impulsive and permanent microquasar ejections.

1) 100 yr

2) 1000 yr,

3) 10000 yr

dMQ/cloud=10pc

Mcloud=105Msun

Ljet=1037 erg/s

Bosch-Ramon et al. 2005

Romero et al. (2010)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Pulsar wind model

Pulsar Wind Model

Jet formation, evolution

and termination

Particle acceleration

and transport

Radiative Processes

Cascades

Rev: Bosch-Ramon &

Khangulyan 2009

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

LSI +61 303

Interaction of the relativistic wind from a young pulsar with the wind from its stellar companion

Stellar wind is equatorial

Periastron: full black lines

Apastron: dashed black lines

Dubus 2006

Rotation powered pulsar

Sierpowska-Bartosik & Torres 2008

PSR 1259-63: next periastron

passage: ~Christmas 2010

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Cygnus x 1

SS433

Jet/ISM interactions

Dubner et al. 1998, ApJ

Cygnus X-1

  • One of best Galactic black hole source (~10 Mo)

  • -ray black hole (?)

    • 5 pc bow shock, 50 % unseen energy

  • Flaring MAGIC emission

  • Hadronic model (Romero et al. 2010)

Albert et al. ‘07

Gallo et al. ‘05

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Isolated black holes

Isolated Black Holes

  • Number of black holes in the Galaxy: IMF vs. GRB

  • Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto isolated black hole

  • Model for low- and high-latitude unidentified sources

  • Mechanism to form g rays?

Accreting isolated black holes and the unidentified EGRET sources,

AIP Conference Proceedings, Dermer

http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997AIPC..410.1275D

See work by Punsly, Romero,

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Galactic Center RegionMass within 0.015 pc  4106 MNearby bright EGRET unID sourceNonvariable HESS point-source + ridge emissionFermi results: TBA

R. Genzel et al. (2004)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black hole plerion concept aka black hole wind nebula

  • Electrons and protons accelerated by first-order (shock) Fermi acceleration.

  • Electrons emit X-ray synchrotron radiation to form quiescent X-ray emission

  • and Compton scatter

  • ADAF emission

  • 1013 Hz emission from cold dust ring around Sgr A*

Black Hole Plerion Concept(aka Black-Hole Wind Nebula)

Particle escape by convective outflow in advection-dominated inflow-outflow source (ADIOS) extension (Blandford & Begelman 1999) of ADAF model.

Assume a wind power

With speed vwindc/2 directed into solid angle W  1 sr, Wind terminates at a subrelativistic shock at

found by equating thermal gas pressure with energy density of wind

Neutron Star Plerion: Crab Nebula

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Radio sub mm quiescent x ray tev emission

Radio/sub-mm, quiescent X-ray, TeV emission

Atoyan & Dermer (2004)

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Summary

  • g-ray binaries are high-mass X-ray binaries: (pulsar-star or rotating black hole) colliding wind or black-hole microquasars

  • Leptonic and hadronic model are highly geometrical, with the principal photon source being the directional high-mass star photon spectrum

    (accretion disk for LMXBs)

  • LSI +61 303 probably pulsar/high mass stellar binary; open question for LS 5039 and Cyg X-3; black hole for Cyg X-1

  • Black-hole wind model using BZ effect for a pulsar-wind like system with black hole

  • Plerionic emission from black hole outflows

  • Predictions for GeV/TeV emission from LMXBs: the next high-energy source class?

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Back up slides

Back-up Slides

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Synchrotron models for microquasars including lmxbs

Synchrotron Models for Microquasars including LMXBs

Leptonic models:

SSC Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253

Latham et al. 2005, AIP CP745, 323

EC Kaufman Bernadó et al. 2002, A&A 385, L10

Georganopoulos et al. 2002, A&A 388, L25

SSC+EC Bosch-Ramon et al. 2004 A&A 417, 1075

Synchrotron jet

emission Markoff et al. 2003, A&A 397, 645

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Models of adiabatically expanding synchrotron radiation-emitting

conical jets may explain some of the characteristics of radio

emission from X-ray binaries.Hjellming & Johnston 1988, ApJ 328, 60

  • Van der Laan (1966) model

  • Expanding cloud with continuous injection of electrons.

  • Production of X-rays by inverse Compton scattering of external photons and synchrotron-self-Compton scattering

  • Radiative and adiabatic cooling

  • Applied to SS433 (Band & Grindlay 1986, ApJ 311, 595)

Cyg X-1

Cyg X-3 quiesc.

LSI+61303

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Particle injection into twin jets

  • Cyg X-3 exhibits flaring to levels of 20 Jy or more

  • In 1972 was first “caught” flaring above 20 Jy. These events are amongst

    the best-known examples of observed

    expanding synchrotron-emitting sources

    (21 papers in Nature Phys. Sci. 239, No. 95

    (1972))

  • Modelling Cyg X-3 radio outbursts: particle injection into twin jets

Martí et al. 1992, A&A 258,309

Martí et al. 2001, A&A 375, 476

= 0.48 , = 73

VLA, 5 GHz

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Black holes in the galaxy

Synchrotron jet emission

  • X-ray synchrotron emitting jets:

  • Conical jet populated by relativistic particles emitting by synchrotron processes.

  • Particle acceleration balanced by adiabatic and radiative losses in the jet “base”. Truncated accretion disk Weak disk emission  Low external photon density

  • Applied, e.g., to XTE J1118+480 (Markoff, Falcke & Fender 2001, A&A).

XTE J1118+480

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


Leptonic high energy models

Leptonic high energy models

Synchrotron self Compton model

  • Non-thermal flares GRS1915+105(Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253)

  • Flares are caused by synchrotron radiation of relativistic e suffering radiative, adiabatic and energy-dependent escape losses in fast-expanding plasmoids(radio clouds)

  • Continuous supply or in-situ acceleration of radio e

Rodríguez et al.

1995, ApJS 101, 173

BATSE

0.05 G

  • Radio data gives basic parameter characterizing expanding plasmoids, the emay be accelerated up to TeV energies, and the fluxes of synchrotron radiation could then extend beyond the X-ray region and the fluxes of the IC γ-rays to HE and VHE.

IR

0.1G

0.2 G

sub-mm

GRS 1915+105

radio

Compton scattering or synchrotron emission from jets could dominate the high-energy emission above ~MeV Atoyan & Aharonian 1999, MNRAS 302, 253, and 2001

Dermer VERITAS_NYC 28-29 May 2010


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