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Workshop on modern biology & its social impacts 2-5 Dec 2007, Xishuanbanna, Yunnan, China Environmental Impacts of GM Crops for Insect-Resistance Yufa Peng Biosafety Research Centre, CAAS, Beijing [email protected] MOA Inspection and Test Center for Environmental Safety of Transgenic Crops.

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Workshop on modern biology & its social impacts

2-5 Dec 2007, Xishuanbanna, Yunnan, China

Environmental Impacts of GM Crops for Insect-ResistanceYufa Peng

Biosafety Research Centre, CAAS, Beijing

[email protected]


Moa inspection and test center for environmental safety of transgenic crops
MOA Inspection and Test Center for Environmental Safety of Transgenic Crops

Lab testing

Environmental testing


The major crops under field testing
The major crops under field testing Transgenic Crops

Cotton

Corn

Soybean

Potato

Rice


Environmental Impacts of Bt Cotton Transgenic Crops

Experimental Stations for Environmental safety of Bt cotton

4

1

Langfang

2

3

1-Langfang,Hebei(1997-) 2-An Yang, Henan(1997-)

3-Tianmen, Hubei(2001-) 4- Kashi, Xinjiang(2001-)


Population dynamics of non-target pests and natural enemies in Bt cotton field

Number of predators increased due to reduced pesticide uses in Bt cotton field

The damage of aphid reduced due to higher population of natural enemies

Mirids become the major pests in Bt cotton


Impact of Bt Cotton Pollen in Bt cotton field

On Silkworms

Bombyx mori

Antheraea pernyi

No significant difference was observed on mortality of silkworm at the density of 100 pollen grains/cm2 in Bt cotton field or Chinese tussah silkworm at the density of1000 pollen grains/cm2 in Bt corn field compared to non-Bt controls


Effects on Arthropod Biodiversity of Bt Cotton in Bt cotton field

A higher diversity in species and a better structure of arthropod community in Bt cotton field


Monitoring the Bt toxin residue in soil of Bt cotton field in Bt cotton field

The contents of Cry1Ac toxin in soil in Langfang,Hebei, Jiangsu, Henan, Shandong were less than ELISA test limit


Functions of cotton bollworm refuges with different planting models

Corn

Soybean

Wheat

Soybean/Peanut

Corn

Soybean/Peanut

Peanut

Cotton

Cotton

Cotton

Different planting models

1st 2nd 3rd fourth

generation larvae



Environmental testing of GM soybean models

  • The survival and competitive ability

  • The ecological consequence of gene flow

  • Effects on non-target organisms and biodiversity


GM soybean models

  • Testing the survival and competitive abilities

  • survival: less

  • weediness:

    without advantage


Local soybean variety models

GM soybean

Experimental layout of gene flow

GM soybean

  • Testing the ecological risk of gene flow

Gene flow frequency

0.0316%~0.6%

maximum flow distance: 20m

Local soybean variety

GM soybean


GM soybean models

  • Testing the ecological risk of gene flow

  • GM to wild soybean: 0.15%-1.3%

  • GM to conventional cultivars

  • to yellow soybeans 0.058%-1.63%

  • to black soybeans0.051%-0.16%


GM soybean models

  • effects on biodiversity

  • Direct observations

    • Vacuum-suction machine


GM soybean models

  • effects on biodiversity

  • effect on Arthropods of soybean

    no significant differences

Been blister beetle

Aphids

Dotted bug

Greenish hawk moth


GM soybean models

  • Testing the effects on biodiversity

  • effects on nature enemy of soybean pests

spider

ladybird


GM soybean models

  • effects on biodiversity

  • effects on nature enemies of soybean diseases

    no significant differences

Downy mildew


Environmental impact testing of transgenic Corn models

MON810 , MON863resistant to insects

GA21, NK603tolerant to herbicide

MONSANTO

Bt 11, 176resistant to insects

SYNGENTA

TC1705resistant to insects

DAS-59122-7resistant to insectsand tolerant to herbicide

Du PONT

BAYER

T25tolerant to herbicide


transgenic corn models

  • survival and competitive abilities

  • survival: less

  • weediness:

    without advantage


transgenic corn models

  • ecological risk of gene flow

  • 5m: 0.93% to 19.57%

    15m: 0.88% to 6.67%

    30m: 0.32% to 1.76%

    60m: 0.23% to 1%

GM corn


transgenic corn models

  • the effects on biodiversity

Visual Observation

Vaccum-sucking machine

Pitfall trap

Dissecting the stem


transgenic corn models

good control on Asian corn borer

Bt corn

Damaged by peach borer

Non-Bt corn damaged by Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis

Non-Bt corn

Bt corn


transgenic corn models

  • effects on non-target insects of Bt corn

    no significant differences

Corn leaf aphid

Thrips


transgenic corn models

  • effects on natural enemies of corn pests

    no significant difference

Propylaea japonica

Lacewing

Harmonia axyridis


transgenic corn models

  • effects on corn diseases

Corn northern leaf blight

Curvularia leaf spot

grey leaf spot

Common smut


Concluding remarks
Concluding remarks models

Cotton bollworm and Bt cotton cultivation

Genetic stability for 10 years

Not an invasive weed

Bt-proteins in cotton cultivars does not appear to alter the fitness to survive in natural habitats

Effects on non-target insects and biodiversity

Insect resistance and IPM strategy


For regulation have to know vs nice to know for research understanding cooperation

For regulation, have to know vs. nice to know modelsFor research, understanding & cooperation

Thank you !


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