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Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative (Locative). The nominative case was most commonly used by the Romans to designate the subject of the finite verb in a sentence. Review - Cases.

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Review cases

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Ablative

Vocative

(Locative)

The nominative case was most commonly used by the Romans to designate the subject of the finite verb in a sentence.

Review - Cases

The ablative case is also sometimes called the adverbial case because the Romans used it when they wanted to modify or limit the verb by such ideas as means, agent, accompaniment, manner, place, and time.

General English prepositions which are used to translate the ablative case are: by, with, from, in, on, and at.

The Genitive was generally used when the Romans wanted to modify one noun with another.

The general English preposition used to translate the genitive case is of.

The accusative case was generally used by the Romans to indicate the direct object of a transitive verb.

This is the person or thing which is directly effected by the action of the verb.

The dative case was used in Latin to distinguish the person or thing indirectly effected by the action of the verb.

General English prepositions which are used to translate the dative case are to or for.

The vocative case is used in direct address towards and person or thing.


Gender and the second declension
Gender and the Second Declension

These nouns end in -us (-os), -ir, and -er and are generally masculine .

- There are exceptions such as the names of plants and gems and also several other items such as alvus (belly), carbasus (linen), colus (distaff), humus (ground), and vannus (winnowing-shovel)which are feminine.

- Some town and country names end in -us and -os such as Aegyptus (Egypt) and Corinthus (Corinth) and are feminine.


The second declension
The Second Declension

numerus

puer

numerī

numer-

puerī

puer-

Of the number

Of the boy

To make sentences with the noun you need to decline it.

This is done by putting the case endings on the end of the base…


The second declension1

Nom. -us

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. –e/-i

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Nom. amīcus

Gen. amīcī

Dat. amīcō

Acc. amīcum

Abl. amīcō

Voc. amīce

Nom. amīcī

Gen. amīcōrum

Dat. amīcīs

Acc. amīcōs

Abl. amīcīs

Voc. amīcī

The Second Declension


The second declension2

Nom. -us

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. –e/-i

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Nom. fīlius

Gen. fīliī

Dat. fīliō

Acc. fīlium

Abl. fīliō

Voc. fīlī

Nom. fīliī

Gen. fīliōrum

Dat. fīliīs

Acc. fīliōs

Abl. fīliīs

Voc. fīliī

The Second Declension


Second declension nouns in er

Nom. -

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. -

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Second Declension Nouns in -er

puer

puer-

puerī

ager

agrī

agr-


The second declension3

Nom. -

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. -

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Nom. puer

Gen. puerī

Dat. puerō

Acc. puerum

Abl. puerō

Voc. puer

Nom. puerī

Gen. puerōrum

Dat. puerīs

Acc. puerōs

Abl. puerīs

Voc. puerī

The Second Declension


The second declension4

Nom. -

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. -

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Nom. vir

Gen. virī

Dat. virō

Acc. virum

Abl. virō

Voc. vir

Nom. virī

Gen. virōrum

Dat. virīs

Acc. virōs

Abl. virīs

Voc. virī

The Second Declension


The second declension5

Nom. -

Gen. -ī

Dat. -ō

Acc. -um

Abl. -ō

Voc. -

Nom. -ī

Gen. -ōrum

Dat. -īs

Acc. -ōs

Abl. -īs

Voc. -ī

Nom. ager

Gen. agrī

Dat. agrō

Acc. agrum

Abl. agrō

Voc. ager

Nom. agrī

Gen. agrōrum

Dat. agrīs

Acc. agrōs

Abl. agrīs

Voc. agrī

The Second Declension


The second declension6

Nom. poēta bonus

Gen. poētae bonī

Dat. poētae bonō

Acc. poētam bonum

Abl. poētā bonō

Voc. poēta bone

Nom. poētae bonī

Gen. poētārum bonōrum

Dat. poētīs bonīs

Acc. poētās bonōs

Abl. poētīs bonīs

Nom. ager meus

Gen. agrī meī

Dat. agrō meō

Acc. agrum meum

Abl. agrō meō

Voc. ager mī

Nom. agrī meī

Gen. agrōrum meōrum

Dat. agrīs meīs

Acc. agrōs meōs

Abl. agrīs meīs

The Second Declension


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