drugs analysis
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Drugs: Analysis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Drugs: Analysis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 149 Views
  • Uploaded on

Drugs: Analysis. Summary. Analysis of Chemical Drugs Instrumental Examination Botanical Examination. Chemical Examination. White Powder or Pills. What are they?. Drugs > Chemical Exam. 3 steps in processing unknown chemicals:. Screening step. Sample preparation step. Confirmatory test.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Drugs: Analysis' - jerica


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
summary
Summary
  • Analysis of Chemical Drugs
  • Instrumental Examination
  • Botanical Examination
chemical examination
Chemical Examination

White Powder or Pills

What are they?

slide4

Drugs > Chemical Exam

3 steps in processing unknown chemicals:

  • Screening step
  • Sample preparation step
  • Confirmatory test
slide5

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Color Test

  • Small amount of chemical in spot plate
  • Drop of color changing reagent added
  • Color change noted
slide6

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Color Test

  • Several tests done at same time.
  • Adulterants or diluents may affect color
slide7

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Microcrystal Test

  • Small amount of sample dissolved in solution.
  • Test reagent added; contains another chemical that reacts with drug.
  • Insoluble crystal formed.
slide8

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Microcrystal Test

  • Shape of crystal suggests type of drug.
  • Impurities may cause unusual crystal formation.
slide9

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Dot of drug placed at bottom of paper or thin silica plate
  • Bottom dipped in solvent; solvent diffuses up plate
  • Solvent carries drug up paper; distance depends on drug
slide10

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

  • Different solvents result in different distances
  • Some systems include color change components
slide11

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

UV Spectroscopy

  • Sample dissolved in liquid; placed in cuvette.
  • A range of UV light wavelengths are passed through solution.
  • Some light will pass through; some light will be absorbed
slide12

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

UV Spectroscopy

Different drugs create a different pattern

slide13

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Gas Chromatography

Similar to TLC; different chemicals will move at different rates through a capillary.

slide14

Drugs > Chemical Exam > Screening

Gas Chromatography

The time it takes to pass through the capillary gives an indication of which drug it is.

botanical examination
Botanical Examination

With botanical evidence, additional steps can be added to the screening process.

slide16

Drugs > Botanical Exam

Marijuana

  • Macroscopic Exam: Leaf and stem structure
  • Microscopic Exam: Tiny hairs on leaf surface
slide17

Drugs > Botanical Exam

Marijuana (Resin ID)

Color test:

Tests for chemical THC

TLC:

Tests for chemical THC

slide18

Drugs > Botanical Exam

Peyote

Macroscopic Exam:

Look for cotton-like tufts

Test for alkaloids:

TLC & Gas chromatography

Confirming mescaline not necessary

slide19

Drugs > Botanical Exam

Mushrooms

Macroscopic Exam:

Can identify mushrooms that contain psilocybin

Screen for psilocybin:

Color test, TLC, and UV spectroscopy

Confirmed with MS and IR spec (later slides)

slide20

Drugs

Screening Summary

  • All screening tests give an indication of what the drug is.
  • Since some drugs behave alike during screening tests, confirmation of the drug type is needed.
slide21

Drugs

Sample Preparation

  • In many cases, the identity of the drug must be confirmed for prosecution.
  • Before identification, it must be separated from other chemicals in the mixture
slide22

Drugs > Sample Preparation

Sample Preparation (Separation)

Physical Separation: particles are separated based on microscopic appearance.

Dry Wash or Dry Extraction

Dry Wash: Liquid dissolves adulterants; solid drug left behind

Dry Extraction: Liquid dissolves drug; solid adulterants left behind

slide23

Drugs > Sample Preparation

Sample Preparation (Separation)

  • Liquid/Liquid Extraction:
    • Entire sample dissolved in aqueous (water) liquid
    • Organic liquid (oil-like) mixed with solution
    • Organic liquid removes adulterants
    • Sample remains in aqueous layer
confirmation techniques
Confirmation Techniques

Heroin?

Confirmation identifies the specific type of drug.

slide25

Drugs > Confirmation

Mass Spectroscopy

  • MS will smash a molecule into pieces and measure the mass of the pieces.
  • Every drug will break in a unique way, creating a unique amount of pieces.
slide26

Drugs > Confirmation

Mass Spectroscopy

slide27

Drugs > Confirmation

Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Similar to UV spectroscopy, except a range of infrared light wavelengths are passed through a sample.
  • Some light passes through; some light is absorbed.
slide28

Drugs > Confirmation

Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Different drugs = different patterns
  • Pattern is specific to one drug
ad