Leading to a civil war
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Leading to a Civil War. Instructor: Carol Jean Cox. LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR. Events Leading to the Secession of the South The Confederate States of America Causes Leading to the Civil War. Leading to a Civil War. Events leading to the Secession of the South Sucession

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Leading to a Civil War

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Leading to a civil war

Leading to a Civil War

Instructor: Carol Jean Cox


Leading to a civil war1

LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  • The Confederate States of America

  • Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a civil war2

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Sucession

      "to withdraw formally from a union or alliance”

      Southern individual states nullified their ratification of the U.S. constitution


Leading to a civil war

The Process of Secession


Leading to a civil war3

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Political Sectionalism

      • Missouri Compromise 1820

        • Missouri - slave state

        • Maine - free state

        • Entry of states into the Union have to be balanced - one free/one slave

      • Gag Rule of 1836

      • Compromise of 1850

        • California a free state

        • Slavery allowed in the other territories acquired from Mexico


Leading to a civil war

Slave and Free Territories Under the Compromise of 1850


Leading to a civil war4

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Political Sectionalism

      • Despite territorial gains emerged from theMexican American War, Americans were more divided than ever

        • North denounced war as a southern project for expanding slavery

      • David Wilmot - Wilmot Proviso

        • no slavery in Mexican Territory

          Many hoping the Compromise of 1850 had finally settled slavery


Leading to a civil war5

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854

      • organized 2 new federal territories

      • repealed section of Missouri Compromise

      • prohibiting slavery in states/territories north of 36º 30’ latitude

      • people decide (popular sovereignty)

        “Bleeding Kansas”


Leading to a civil war6

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Change in 2 party system

      • Democrats & Whigs

    • Democrats (dough faces)

      • needed northern candidate to win because of the number of southerners

      • F. Pierce 1852, J. Buchanan 1856, Douglas ?

    • Whigs

      • Kansas & Nebraska Act killed partydivided sectionally

      • North & South too far apart on slavery issue to hold party together


Leading to a civil war7

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Change in 2 party system

      • Democrats & Whigs

  • Whigs & Free Soilers = Republicans

    • * only a northern party

  • tolerate slavery in south

  • unwilling to accept it's expansion

  • demand that the Kansas & Nebraska Actbe repealed

  • central railroad (rather than northern as Douglas proposed)

  • Homestead Act - western lands to families to settle 160 acres


Leading to a civil war8

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • Dred Scott Decision 1857

      • Southern dominated court

        • Slaves were property

        • "congress could not ban slavery from territories”

        • Chief Justice Roger Taney


Leading to a civil war9

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • The Election of 1860

      • Aggressive movements of pro slave movement

        • frightened north

        • Hardened resistance in North

        • intensified southern insecurity

      • South demands - congressional slave codes


Leading to a civil war10

Leading to a Civil War

  • Events leading to the Secession of the South

    • The Election of 1860

      • Freeport Doctrine

        • legislation to protect slave property in north

        • Lead to a division of the Democratic Party

      • Northern Democrats - Stephen Douglas

        • appealed to North & South but ambiguous

      • Southern Democrats - John Breckenridge

        • Appealed to south - popular sovereignty

      • Republicans - Abraham Lincoln

      • Constitutional Union Party - John Bell


Leading to a civil war

The Election of 1860


Leading to a civil war11

LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South

    • Political Sectionalism

      • Missouri Compromise

      • Gag Rule

      • Compromise of 1850

      • Wilmot Proviso

    • Kansas Nebraska Act 1854

    • Dred Scot Decision 1857

    • Election of 1860


Leading to a civil war12

LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  • The Confederate States of America

  • Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a civil war

The Confederate States of America


Leading to a civil war13

Leading to a Civil War

  • The Confederate States of America

    • Constitution 1787 (1789 9 states ratified - 4 didn't)

      • established government

      • Constitution states that states can't coin money and can’t maintain an army but can they secede?

    • Southern Position held that the Constitution did not automatically bind states

    • Individual States first . . . then United

      STATES UNITED


Leading to a civil war14

Leading to a Civil War

  • The Confederate States of America

    • Individual States first . . . then United

      STATES UNITED

      • 11 southern states seceded and formed their own country

      • North says no you can't leave = 4 long years of fighting

      • CIVIL (internal) War - settle question about whether a state can succeed

        • Pre Civil War The United States are

        • Post Civil War The United States is


Leading to a civil war15

Leading to a Civil War

  • The Confederate States of America

    • Radicals - fire eaters

      • South Carolinians since Nullification Controversy

    • South Carolina state convention Dec 20, 1860

      • repeal ratification of federal constitution

    • 6 weeks later MI, Fl, GA, Al, LA, TX succeed

    • Delegates to Montgomery Alabama

      • organized themselves as the C.S. of A.

      • Jefferson Davis - President ( Mississippi)


Leading to a civil war16

LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  • The Confederate States of America

  • Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a civil war17

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    1. Conspiracy

    President Country

    • North Lincoln 1860 USA

    • South J. Davis 1861 CSA

  • Each side felt the other was conspiring against the other

  • Laws & measures that inhibited the south - DAVIS

    Congress controlled by north

  • North doesn't want to control south - south wants

    to expand into the west LINCOLN

  • Each side didn't trust in an economic or political sense


Leading to a civil war18

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    2. Constitutional

    UNITED STATES VS. STATES UNITED

    • South - separate individual states form the union

      • since states formed the union they can opt out

    • North - the union created the states by the constitution

      • If the union is dissolved there is nothing

      • LINCOLN WAS FIGHTING TO SAVE THE UNIONNOT TO FREE THE SLAVES (a political move)

      • Lincoln was a federalist & constitutionalist


Leading to a civil war19

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    3. Growth of Slavery

    • South had 4 million slaves

      • Slave owners 25%

        • 17 % 1-9 slaves

        • 7% 10-99 slaves

        • .1% 100+

      • very few had large plantations

      • small minority of controlling whites controlled southern society

    • Labor intensive agricultural society

      • slaves imported because can't get enough whites to do the labor


Leading to a civil war20

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    3. Slavery

    • Davis - the Blacks have a better condition under the superior White race

      “docile savages to bodily comforts and religious instruction”

    • Lincoln - not in favor of bringing about the socialor economic equality of Negroes “There must be the position of inferior/superior”

      Lincoln 1858

      Lincoln was a product of his own culture

      Freeing of slaves not a matter of equality!!!

      Yet he was against the concept of slavery

      SAVE THE UNION


Leading to a civil war21

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    4. Economic

    • Labor

      • South - free labor North - paid labor

    • Tariffs

      • North wanted to protect their products artificial inflation of imports

      • South faced reciprocal tariffs when they exported their agricultural products

        South Against High Tariffs

        North Against Free Labor


Leading to a civil war22

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    4. Economic

    • North passes laws in congress because of an imbalance in voting power

      • 19 Free States

      • 15 Slave States


Leading to a civil war23

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to A Civil War

    5. Nature of a Republic

    • What is a Republic?

      • Representative Democracy

    • Freedom to choose

      South choose to leave under this freedom

      Under another system this would not have happened!


Leading to a civil war24

Leading to a Civil War

  • ". . . it presents the question whether discontented individuals too few in numbers to control administration according to organic law in any case, can always upon the pretenses made in this case, or on any other pretense, break up their government, and thus practically put an end to free government upon the earth. It forces us to ask: Is there, in all republics, this inherent and fatal weakness? Must a government, of necessity be too strong for the liberties of its own people or too weak to maintain its own existence?"

    Lincoln - July 4, 1861

    following Ft. Sumter


Leading to a civil war25

Leading to a Civil War

“our heritage depends on inherent weakness of a republic to strong to maintain liberties yet too weak to maintain its existence”.

Abraham Lincoln


Leading to a civil war26

Leading to a Civil War

  • Causes Leading to the Civil War

    • Conspiracy

    • Constitutional

    • Slavery

    • Economic

    • Nature of a Republic

      1600 ---------------1787--------------1865---------------2000+

      Colonial Am. Nation Civil War

    • Civil War 265 years since beginnings of our country


Leading to a civil war27

LEADING TO A CIVIL WAR

  • Events Leading to the Secession of the South

  • The Confederate States of America

  • Causes Leading to the Civil War


Leading to a civil war28

Leading to a Civil War

Instructor: Carol Jean Cox


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