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Outline Types of Static Memory Static RAM Battery Backup EPROM Flash Memory EEPROM Goal Understand types of static memory Understand static memory design Reading Microprocessor Systems Design, Clements, Ch. 5.3. Static Memory. Terminology static - maintains state without any action

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Static memory

Outline

Types of Static Memory

Static RAM

Battery Backup

EPROM

Flash Memory

EEPROM

Goal

Understand types of static memory

Understand static memory design

Reading

Microprocessor Systems Design, Clements, Ch. 5.3

Static Memory


Types of static memory

Terminology

static - maintains state without any action

nonvolatile - maintains state without power

solid-state - semiconductor, not disk, tape, etc.

Memory types

SRAM - static read/write random access memory

ROM - nonvolatile read only memory

EPROM - fast read, off-line chip erase/write ROM

Flash - fast read, slow block erase/write ROM

EEPROM - fast read, slow byte erase/write ROM

Types of Static Memory


Static ram

Static read/write random access memory

CPU can quickly read and write each memory location

CPU can access each memory location at same speed

fastest type of memory

use for small amount of RAM

low power consumption when idle

can use battery backup

SRAM cell

6 transistor (6T) cell

4 transistor and 2 resistor (4T) cell

Static RAM

Sel

Sel

B

B*

B

B*


Sram configuration

1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32-bits wide

width to match chip count for memory capacity

Pin compatibility

SRAM parts have corresponding ROM, EPROM, etc.

Bus contention

memories A and B both putting data on bus

memory and CPU both putting data on bus

SRAM Configuration


Bus contention
Bus Contention

Data bus D00-D31

<D00:D15>

<D16:D31>

4Mx16

4Mx16

<D0:D15>

<D0:D15>

<A0:A21> CS* R/W*

<A0:A21> CS* R/W*

Address bus A00-A31

Two 4Mx16 SRAMs form one 4Mx32 memory bank


Sram configuration1

CSA* and CSB* must make sure A and B don’t drive the bus at the same time

bus contention

or fight with CPU or other device

address decoder timing issue

SRAM Configuration

Data bus D00-D31

4Mx32

4Mx32

A

B

<A0:A21> CS* R/W*

<A0:A21> CS* R/W*

CSA*

CSB*

Address bus A00-A31


Battery backup

CMOS SRAM uses little power while idle at the same time

can be placed in special power-down mode

< 50 uA for 6264LP-10 chip

battery can supply power

save state when power is off - e.g. setup parameters

selecting powerdown

deselect chip, drop supply voltage

Battery approach

rechargeable NiCad

1.2V cell, put in series for higher voltage

charge off power supply

drawback - self-discharge of 1%/day at 15C, 8%/day at 50C

can only use for short-term power loss

Battery Backup


Backup supply design

Diode isolated at the same time

diode blocks power supply when it goes away

resistor in series with battery limits charging current

C/10 where C = capacity in A-h

0.1 A-h battery => 10 mA charging current

Vdd = 5V, 2.4V battery => 260 ohm resistor

causes 13 mV voltage drop at 50 µA draw

also have diode leakage

Problem

Vdd of 6264 SRAM is 4.3-4.6V

Vdd of 68K is 5V

could overdrive SRAM inputs, cause latchup

solution - pass CPU Vdd through diode

better - use transistor cutoff

Backup Supply Design

TTL Vcc

5V

CMOS Vcc

Rc


Chip inputs

Must have chip inputs at Vdd or GND at the same time

otherwise they can draw large power

Solution

use open-collector drivers with pullup resistors

connect resistors to battery supply

easier to use active low chip select

otherwise must guarantee select is low

but drivers are another source of leakage current

Chip select

tie to battery supply - falls when battery takes over

use supply comparator - deselect when battery > Vdd

Chip Inputs


Eprom

Erasable, programmable ROM at the same time

use when data infrequently changed

e.g. PostScript interpreter in printer

EPROM cell

floating FET gate, stores charge

12-25V on select gate injects charge into floating gate

done on special PROM programmer

complex programming cycle

erase with bright UV light - all gates to 0V

chip has quartz window

EPROM usage

similar to read cycle in SRAM

EPROM

Vgate

+N

N+

P-


Flash memory

Flash electrically erasable PROM at the same time

program similar to EPROM

erase with Fowler-Nordheim tunneling

12-20V across thin ONO oxide

electrons tunnel through it at S/D to erase

Bulk erase

flash erases whole chip or block/sector at a time

slow - can take 100 ms to 1 s

Erase/program in system

chip has internal voltage generator and program/erase logic

not like in book

Limited lifetime

limited to 10K-100K erase/program cycles - oxide wears out

Usage - solid state disk, BIOS, embedded OS, etc.

cheaper than battery-backed SRAM

Flash Memory


Eeprom

Electrically-erasable PROM at the same time

erase/program with tunneling

faster erase, slower programming than flash

Byte erase/program

automatically erase before program

looks like a slow SRAM

on-chip voltage generator and timing

CPU can poll chip to see if write is done

Buffering

many EEPROMs have SRAM buffer

CPU can do series of quick writes, which are then stored

Intelligence

put chip into read-only mode

erase entire chip and disable auto-erase

EEPROM


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