Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry
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Bee Sting: a Day at the Beach Gone Horribly Awry . By Alisa Fay. Non-allergic bee sting. A person who is not allergic to bee venom has a very different response to someone that is The immune system deals with the venom like it would do to any antigen

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Bee Sting: a Day at the Beach Gone Horribly Awry

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Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

Bee Sting: a Day at the Beach Gone Horribly Awry

By Alisa Fay


Non allergic bee sting

Non-allergic bee sting

  • A person who is not allergic to bee venom has a very different response to someone that is

  • The immune system deals with the venom like it would do to any antigen

    • Causes redness and swelling at injection site when white blood cells migrate


Treatment

Treatment

  • Pull out stinger

  • Compress with an ice pack to reduce swelling

  • Within minutes pain is gone

  • Within a day swelling is gone

  • No long-term affect


Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

To an allergic individual, this sting can be much more severe!


Stages of an allergic reaction

Stages of an Allergic Reaction:

Basophil

  • Sensitization

  • Activation of mast cells

  • Prolonged Immune Activity


1 sensitization

1. Sensitization

  • The first time a person is introduced to the allergen, like the venom of a bee, there are no symptoms


Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

  • The immune system deals with the invaders like it would do with any other

    • Macrophages engulf them and become antigen-presenting cells

    • Helper T cells identify antigen and show B cells

    • B cells produce plasma and memory cells


Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

  • Plasma cells secrete allergen-specific molecules called immunoglobulin (IgE)

    • attach to receptors on mast cells in tissues and on basophils in blood


Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

  • The first encounter produces no symptoms -it just primes the immune system by making the IgE antibodies

    • They will react with the allergen in the next exposure


2 activation of mast cells

2. Activation of Mast Cells

  • When the antigen is exposed to the body again, it binds to the IgE molecules on the basophils and mast cells

  • When it engages at least two of them, the molecules activate the cell

    • The cell releases cytokines, including histamine


Bee sting a day at the beach gone horribly awry

  • The histamine released can cause the following symptoms, depending on how much is released:

    • Stimulate the production of mucous which constricts the airway

    • Smooth muscles to contact, which surround the bronchioles

    • Dilate small blood vessels and increase their permeability (redness and swelling)


3 prolonged immune activity

3. Prolonged Immune Activity

  • Activated mast cells lure basophils and eosinophils from the circulation to the tissues

    • These white blood cells release substances that prolong the allergy symptoms and may injure the tissue


Anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic Shock

  • When a person comes in contact with the allergen for the second time, the mast cells release the mediator chemicals (histamine, etc.) in large amounts

  • These chemicals can spread throughout the body, causing anaphylaxis (the disturbance of organs not directly in contact with the infection)


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Drop in blood pressure

    • Dizziness

    • Loss of consciousness

    • Heart attack

  • Swelling of lips and tongue

    • Can affect swallowing and breathing

  • Swelling of larynx

    • Can cause suffocation

  • Constriction of lower airways

    • Wheezing

  • Nausea, vomiting, cramps and diarrhea

  • Skin eruptions

    • hives


Treatment1

Treatment

  • Injection of epinephrine

    • Inhibits mediator release

    • Opens airways

    • Stops dilation of blood vessels

  • If the person doesn’t have an EpiPen, death could occur within minutes


Antihistamines

Antihistamines

  • Drug that blocks histamine receptor sites

    • Stops the allergic symptoms from occurring

  • Can come in tablet, chewable tablet, capsule and liquid form

  • Common antihistamines include Benadryl and Claritin


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